Dr Wendy van Duivenvoorde
Lecturer in Maritime Archaeology/Program Coordinator
Wendy van Duivenvoorde is a lecturer in the Maritime Archaeology Program. Her current research is focused primarily on maritime trade and shipbuilding in the ancient Mediterranean and Northern Europe. A graduate degree in Mediterranean Archaeology from the University of Amsterdam and her interest in shipwreck archaeology led Wendy to continue her education and research as a student in Texas A&M University's Nautical Archaeology Program. Wendy is the recipient of various awards and fellowships, and is a grantee of the Fullbright Association.
Wendy has participated in shipwreck surveys and excavations in Australia, Italy, Spain, Sri Lanka, and Turkey. From 2000 to 2006, she assist-directed the post-excavation research of the Late Bronze Age shipwreck excavated off Uluburun in Turkey by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology. The Uluburun shipwreck is considered one of the ten most important archaeological discoveries of the twentieth century.*
Wend was awarded a PhD degree from the Department of Anthropology of Texas A&M University in August 2008. Her PhD dissertation on late sixteenth-and early seventeenth-century Dutch shipbuilding focuses primarily on ships of exploration and Indiamen, and includes the archaeological material of Western Australia's Dutch Indiamen, in particular Batavia (1629). Wendy's study of the Batavia ship was based primarily upon the existing hull remains, now in the Shipwreck Galleries of the Western Australian Museum, contemporaneous archival material and archaeological remains of similar-type ships. For her Batavia shipwreck research along, Wendy has been awarded 15 grants and fellowships to date.
An additional research interest comprises ancient ship's fastenings and anchors. Wendy has become a specialist in the study of ship's fastenings dating to the ancient Greek and Roman periods. She has conducted research on metal fasteners and anchors excavated from ancient Mediterranean merchantmen such as the Tektas Burnu and Kyrenia shipwrecks.
Her area of expertise includes nautical archaeology, classical archaeology, computer applications in archaeology, archaeobotany, archaeometallurgy, technological advancement, ancient Mediterranean ship construction and technologies, and ancient Mediterranean seafaring and seamanship, and European shipbuilding (in particular that of the Dutch United East India Company), seafaring, and seamanship.
*'The Ten Greatest Discoveries of the Twentieth Century,' Scientific American 1.6 (1999):40-43.
Dr Jonathan Benjamin is a graduate from the University of California, Los Angeles (2000, B.A. in Anthropology) and the University of Edinburgh (2007, Ph.D. in Archaeology). His research interests focus on early prehistory, coastal and underwater archaeology and submerged landscapes and archaeology of the continental shelf. As a prehistorian Jonathan began to dive in order to pursue his research into the archaeology that now exists on and under the seabed, a result of sea-level rise in the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. Now an experienced diver he has conducted terrestrial, intertidal and underwater fieldwork in the UK, Slovenia, Cyprus, Israel, Denmark and the USA.
Jonathan was the principal editor of Submerged Prehistory (2011) and has published in a number of leading international journals including the International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, the European Journal of Archaeology and the Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology. Jonathan was a nominated Early Stage Researcher (2009-2013) representing the UK as part of the SPLASHCOS (Submerged Prehistoric Landscapes and Archaeology of the Continental Shelf) network funded by the European Science Foundation through the Cooperation in Science and Technology. In 2011 Jonathan was invited onto the Editorial Board for the journal Alpine and Mediterranean Quaternary, published by the Italian Association for Quaternary Science (AIQUA). Affiliated with the University of Edinburgh as an Honorary Fellow (2010-2013) and postdoctoral fellow (2008-2010), Jonathan has contributed to undergraduate and postgraduate teaching on the topic of underwater archaeology. Jonathan has also worked professionally for Wessex Archaeology Coastal & Marine (2010-2013) where he was a member of their dive team (undertaking survey and recording on behalf of English Heritage and Historic Scotland) and helped to open the WA C&M Edinburgh Office as their first manager in Scotland.
Jonathan has worked collaboratively with various universities and heritage management agencies in the UK and continental Europe including his role as Principal Investigator of the Outer Hebrides Coastal Community Marine Archaeology and the Scottish Atlantic Maritime Past (SAMPHIRE) projects. Jonathan is also a practitioner of aerial archaeology and has been regular member of the the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historic Monuments of Scotland's aerial survey team since 2010 where he has helped to document and interpret the heritage of Scotlandâ€™s coastal, intertidal and nearshore environments. His research has featured in numerous media sources including the New Scientist, National Geographic and the BBC. Jonathan is a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland and is delighted to join Flinders University in January 2014.
James Hunter is a lecturer in the Maritime Archaeology Program. He received his M.A. in historical archaeology from the University of West Florida, and holds a Ph.D. in maritime archaeology from Flinders University. He has been actively engaged in the discipline(s) of maritime and underwater archaeology for sixteen years, and spent a considerable portion of that time conducting both shipwreck and maritime landscape research that encompasses an historic time span ranging from the sixteenth century to the modern era. Prior to working at Flinders, James was a member of the archaeological team investigating the American Civil War submarine H.L. Hunley (1864), and a staff archaeologist with the U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command’s Underwater Archaeology Branch. He has worked at various locales within the United States, Australia, New Zealand, the Turks and Caicos Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands. Some of the more notable maritime archaeology projects with which he has been affiliated include investigations of the first Emanuel Point Shipwreck (1559), Spanish frigate Nuestra Señora del Rosario y Santiago Apostol (1705), Spanish slave ship Trouvadore (1841), U.S. Navy anti-slavery vessel Chippewa (1817), and the ex-convict transport ship Royal Charlotte, which wrecked off the coast of Queensland in 1825. Most recently, he participated in an initiative to identify and assess Second World War-era underwater heritage sites associated with the Japanese air raid on the Australian city of Darwin in 1942.
James’ doctoral research explored the abandonment of vessels and land-based facilities associated with torpedo boat defences that operated within Australia and New Zealand between 1884 and 1924. His current research interests focus on the development of naval vessels, infrastructure, weaponry, technologies, and tactics between the sixteenth and early twentieth centuries, with particular emphasis on experimental and/or auxiliary warships utilised by fledgling navies that operated within the waters of Australia, New Zealand, and the United States. He also has a strong interest in watercraft discard and abandonment, and the role of the U.S. Navy in pirate- and slave-ship interdiction in the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea during the first half of the nineteenth century.
At present, James is developing a research initiative to archaeologically document Her Majesty’s Colonial Ship (HMCS) Protector with the aid of next-generation scanning technology. Protector was one of Australia’s first purpose-built warships. It was purchased by the South Australian colonial government in 1884, and participated in two major conflicts: the Boxer Rebellion (1900) and World War I (1914-1918). Ultimately, it was decommissioned from naval service, but was reactivated during World War II for the U.S. Army’s use in Papua New Guinea. While en route to Port Moresby, it collided with another vessel and was abandoned at Heron Island on the Great Barrier Reef, where it currently functions as a breakwater. The proposed project will use collected photographic, archaeological, and laser- and/or structured-light scanning data to construct digital and physical three-dimensional models of Protector. These models in turn will be used to answer questions about the vessel’s construction and subsequent adaptation and modification, promote its future preservation and management, and form a ‘virtual’ component of a planned exhibition at the South Australian Maritime Museum in 2015. The effort to document and exhibit Protector is supported by grant funding from the Australian Research Council, Commonwealth government’s Your Community Heritage program, and the Silentworld Foundation.
James’ areas of expertise include nautical archaeology, historical archaeology, conflict archaeology, computer applications in archaeology, field stabilisation and conservation of artefacts, wooden shipbuilding and ship construction (particularly that of Spanish vessels of the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries), shipboard small arms, artillery and ordnance, and early torpedo warfare. He is also an accomplished archaeological illustrator whose work has been featured in a number of scholarly publications.
Dr Bill Jeffery
Lecturer in Maritime Archaeology
Bill has been an active maritime archaeology practitioner since 1981 working in Australia, a number of Pacific Island countries, Sri Lanka, Hong Kong, Tanzania, South Africa and Mozambique. He developed and led the South Australian government maritime heritage program from 1981 to 2001 where he implemented one of Australia’s first maritime archaeological investigations into Australian built ships. He then implemented a PhD with James Cook University in north Queensland. This coincided with working as a contract maritime archaeologist for the Federated States of Micronesia National Historic Preservation Office, working in the States of Chuuk, Yap and Pohnpei. His PhD focused on researching the multi-vocal values of the World War II shipwrecks in Chuuk Lagoon (formerly Truk), which was a major strategic base for the Japanese and was continually bombed by the US military from 1944 to 1945. During this time over 50 large merchant and navy ships were sunk, 400 aircraft and five airstrips were destroyed in addition to the death of 5,000 Japanese and 1,000 Chuukese.
The Chuuk Lagoon shipwrecks are widely recognised and promoted as one of the best places in the world to dive. Bill’s research involved a holistic approach in researching underwater cultural heritage sites, during which time he spent a year living and working in Chuuk. This time was invaluable in gaining the trust of local residents and other stakeholders, and in understanding the socio-historic and socio-political issues associated with the underwater (and associated terrestrial) cultural heritage sites and between the three very different nationalities (Chuukese, Japanese, Americans). Bill encourages maritime archaeology/underwater cultural heritage researchers and students to spend an appropriate amount of time as participant observers with communities in their research projects in order to gain the important local and subjective perspective. He is also an advocate for community maritime archaeology and the empowerment and support of communities in having a greater voice on how their underwater cultural heritage is theorised, researched and managed.
From 2006-2008, an Earthwatch funded project was organised and led by Bill, in association with two Co-Principal Investigators from other disciplines to record the various values and ‘health’ of the Chuuk Lagoon underwater cultural heritage sites to assist the Chuuk government in the management of the sites. As a result of Bill’s work in Chuuk, two television documentaries (Shipwreck Detectives and the French program Thalasa), an Australian Broadcasting Commission Foreign Correspondent episode and numerous international magazine and newspaper articles have been produced. An outcome of the Earthwatch program was the identification of oil leaking from some sites, which culminated in the President of the FSM, Emanuel Mori addressing the 66th United Nations General Assembly in September 2011 calling for international assistance in this potentially grave issue.
Bill spent 3-4 months in Yap recording and documenting the traditional fish weirs and the associated intangible heritage and greatly enjoyed working with Yapese people. This is being followed up with further research on fish weirs, in association with research into indigenous maritime and underwater cultural heritage in other parts of the Asia Pacific region, and the value indigenous people have of foreign material culture. Bill has been involved in conducting a number of university and avocational training courses: with a group of Hong Kong residents, who are now implementing maritime archaeology projects funded by the Hong Kong government; in Guam, where one of the field school outcomes has led to a site being placed on the US National Register of Historic Places; in Sri Lankan where he worked with the Sri Lankan Maritime Archaeology Unit, and implemented a UNESCO ‘Train the Trainer’ program in 2006; in South Africa, Tanzania and Mozambique in association with their national government agencies and universities, and the Centre for International Heritage Activities (CIE). Bill maintains a strong link and commitment to assisting local teams with research and training, particularly in Tanzania where the coastal communities have developed the rich and vibrant Swahili culture from a mix of African, Arab, Persian, India, Chinese and Portuguese influences and adaptations.
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Dr Jennifer F. McKinnon
Adjunct senior lecturer in Maritime Archaeology
Jennifer McKinnon has been working in the field of archaeology for over fifteen years and has worked on a number of sites above and below the water. Since August 2013, she works as an associate professor at East Carolina University. Before commencing her current position, she worked as a senior lecturer at Flinders University(2006-2013) and, for two years, as a State Underwater Archaeologist for the Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research. Prior to her position at the State, she taught courses at Florida State University where she was enrolled in a PhD.
Jennifer's research interests and experience involve Spanish colonial archaeology sites, specifically Spanish mission sites, landing sites, and shipwrecks. Her experience on Spanish sites began in 1997 at a 16th century site in St. Augustine, Florida. In 2000 and 2001 she spent two field seasons excavating 17th century Spanish mission sites in Tallahassee, Florida. Also, in summer of 2001 she took a position with the Lighthouse Archaeological Maritime Program (LAMP) in St. Augustine, Florida, where she continued her research on Spanish colonial sites. Her Masters thesis (2002) involved investigations of a 17th century Spanish landing site in the St. Marks River, where goods were offloaded and transported to inland missions. In 2004 she participated in a survey of 13 Spanish shipwrecks (dated to 1733) off the Florida Keys and an unknown 17th century Spanish shipwreck (Mystery Wreck) off Vaca Key in 2005.
Recently Jennifer has been conducting research into Spanish efforts in the Pacific and more specifically Micronesia. She is developing a project to document and assess Spanish cultural heritage places in the Islands of Micronesia, specifically the Northern Mariana Islands. She has visited the islands of Saipan and Rota to review archival literature, archaeological reports and conduct informant interviews in an effort to catalogue known Spanish heritage sites. A database of Spanish heritage sites will be produced and will provide information on future research potential.
Jennifer's research interests also involve the cultural heritage management of submerged sites. She has a large research project which takes a scholarly, theoretical and practical perspective in exploring the strategies and issues involved in creating a maritime heritage trail for sustainable heritage tourism in Saipan, CNMI. She has been working with colleagues at the CNMI Historic Preservation Office to develop a WWII Maritime Heritage Trail.
Jennifer McKinnon in action
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John was previously a secondary Technology Studies teacher working around South Australia, who returned to the University of Adelaide to complete a Bachelor of Science (with Honours) majoring in marine ecology and chemistry. He is a trained Coxswain, SCUBA instructor, CFS firefighter, and is Captain of the Norton Summit-Ashton brigade. His honours study was on the rocky reef herbivore Heliocidaris erythrogramma (the common purple sea urchin), its feeding at various population densities, and different food regimes. He and his wife have dived extensively around South Australia, in a number of areas across temperate Australia, and occasionally overseas. He has been diving for 30 years and has been a cave diver for 28 years. Special spots in SA are the wrecks around Wardang Island, the cuttlefish aggregation at Point Lowly, West Island (Victor Harbour), and camping in the Gammon Ranges.
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