Referencing is a standard convention within the academic and professional communities, which is designed to inform the reader of the sources of information used in a piece of written work.

There are a number of referencing systems in common use, with certain systems being preferred in different academic disciplines.


Referencing systems

The 3 most widely used referencing styles at Flinders University are:

Current Flinders students can also download them from FLO:


Academic integrity

All students need to become familiar with using a referencing system, as the use of other people's information without acknowledging the source of that information is a breach of academic integrity, which can have serious consequences.


Students are strongly encouraged to visit the FLO Academic Integrity site to learn more.



If you are unsure whether or not your written work may too closely resemble your source material, there is a web-based program available via Flinders University which may assist you to reduce unintentional plagiarism.

Flinders University is providing the opportunity for all enrolled students to use a text-matching software program called Turnitin. If you 'submit' an assignment to this program it will match the text from that assignment against multiple databases.

Turnitin generates a report which tells you the percentage of matching text. More information about Turnitin can be obtained here.


Other referencing resources

Visit our online referencing discussion board. To get answers to your referencing questions online, self register at the FLO Student Self-Registration page.