Copyright FAQ

General queries

Text

Images

Music

Audio Visual (TV, radio, film & YouTube)

Permissions

General

What is copyright?

Copyright is a bundle of exclusive rights which are given to the copyright owner. This includes the right to publish, copy, perform, adapt and communicate the copyright material. Copyright applies to literary, dramatic, musical, and artistic works, sound recordings, films, broadcasts and published editions.

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How does copyright protect my work?

The owner of copyright has the exclusive right to:

  • copy the material;
  • publish the material;
  • communicate the material (i.e. make it available online or electronically transmit);
  • broadcast the material; and
  • adapt the material (e.g. translate it).

These rights can be assigned or licenced to others. If someone uses your copyright material in one of these ways without permission or an exception then you may take legal action against them.

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How long does copyright last?

A number of different factors dictate the length of the copyright term. The following general rules apply: 

  • Published works - expires 70 years after the death of the creator.
  • Anonymous or pseudonymous published works - expires 70 years after first publication.
  • Unpublished works - copyright does not expire.
  • Government works (i.e. crown copyright) - expires 50 years after first publication.
  • Films & sound recordings - expires 70 years after first publication.
  • Broadcasts - expires 50 years after first broadcast.
  • Published editions - expires 25 years after publication.

There have been a number of changes to these rules over time. Before 2005 copyright expired 50 years after the death of the creator which means that any published material where the creator died before 1955 is in the public domain in Australia. 

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Who owns copyright?

The creator of copyright material is generally the first owner of the copyright. However, if the material is created as a part of a person's employment the employer would be the owner unless there is another agreement in place. It is common for publishers and other organisations to end up owning the copyright in material as copyright is assignable.

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Who owns the copyright in the work I do for the University?

The employer has a legal right to copyright ownership of materials created as a part of a person's employment. However the Flinders University Intellectual Property Policy allows the creator to retain copyright ownership in everything apart from teaching material or computer programs. In return the University is granted a licence to use the material and shares in any revenue generated from the commercial exploitation of the material. Copyright ownership of teaching material is retained by the University but the creator can seek permission from their Executive Dean of Faculty to use it for other purposes.

For material created by contractors or non-Flinders staff members copyright ownership should be defined in the contract. 

Students are the copyright owners of any material they create. Their permission must be sought before using their work, e.g. as an example for other students.         

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As a copyright owner, do I have to register my ownership?

No. In Australia copyright arises as soon as the work or subject matter exists in a material form and there is no formal registration process. This means as soon as you record or write something down it is copyright.

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Can I assign my copyright to another person or organisation?

Yes, you can transfer your copyright to another person or organisation. To be legally binding this must be done in writing. You will lose the right to copy, publish, perform, adapt and communicate the material is you assign your copyright. It is common for publishers to request you to sign a copyright transfer agreement before they will publish your work. See copyright and publishing for more information.

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Does copyright apply to non-commercial education purposes?

Yes. Copyright applies to all purposes regardless of if you intend to profit or not. However there are a number of provisions in the Copyright Act that allow you to use copyright material in specific instances without having to ask the owner for permission. See When can I use copyright material? for more information.

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Can I use the fair dealing for research or study exception for teaching?

No. The fair dealing provision for research or study only applies to private study not to teaching. Copying and communicating material for teaching is dealt with under a different section of the Copyright Act. See Copyright information for teaching for more information.

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What are moral rights?

Moral rights are defined in the Copyright Act as:

  • the right to be identified as the author of a piece of work;
  • the right not to be falsely identified as the author of a piece of work; and
  • the right not to have a piece of work used or altered so as to harm your reputation.

In practice if you properly acknowledge your sources, don't try to pass other people's work off as your own and treat works in a respectful manner you will be abiding by moral rights.

Unlike copyright, moral rights cannot be assigned and therefore remain with the creator of the work

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What is the communication right?

In the Copyright Act the right of communication refers to making material available online or electronically transmitting material. This covers acts such as uploading material to a server which people can access, publishing material on a webpage, and emailing material to another person.

The right to communicate material is an exclusive right of the copyright owner.

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What is a published edition?

The copyright in a published edition refers to the typographical layout of the work and only applies to the right to make facsimile copies. This copyright expires 25 years after publication and is generally used to protect editions whose underlying work is in the public domain. For example new editions of Dickens, Shakespeare and Beethoven would all be protected as a published edition.

Editions of public domain works may be considered to be new original works in their own right if significant original investment has been made. This includes instances such as a new translation or a heavily annotated text where you are unable to separate the original work from the new copyright text. Any new introduction, forward, preface, conclusion, historical notes etc. would also be copyright as an original work.  

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Text

Can I share articles which I've downloaded from a library database with colleagues and students?

Material from library databases are governed by licence conditions which we all must abide to. You need to read the database terms and conditions before copying and sharing material with colleagues and students. It is safest to assume that you’re not allowed to share as many databases have highly restrictive licences. This also applies to uploading database materials, such as a journal article, to a FLO site for students to access. This is invoking the copyright owner’s right of copying and communication and is almost always in breach of the licence conditions.

If you would like to share materials from library databases with students please use the library’s eReadings process.

If you would like to share material with a colleague please read the database terms and conditions, or contact the Copyright Officer for advice.

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I have scanned material from a textbook. Can I upload it to FLO for students to access?

No. While the Part VB educational licence allows us to scan material and communicate it to students (i.e. put it online) there are limitations and conditions and these need to be managed through the library's eReadings process. The main limitation is only 10% or 1 chapter from a book is allowed to be copied and communicated and this applies across the whole University, not just for an individual topic. Copyright warning notices must also be included and during survey periods we are required to report on what materials we are using so that the authors of works can be compensated. If individuals add this type of material directly to FLO we have no way of knowing what or how much is being used and we are unable to meet our commitments.   

To provide students with scanned portions of books or with journal articles you can send a request to the library and we will add them to eReadings for you. To request eReadings use the eReadings list management tool or email ereserve@flinders.edu.au. For more information visit the information for staff about readings.

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Can I add a publication (e.g. a film guide) that was included with a DVD to eReadings?

A publication which accompanies a DVD would be considered to be a separate work so unless it is out of print we would only be able to add 10% or 1 chapter of the work to eReadings. This would apply to both a physical publication and an electronic publication, such as a pdf included in a bonus disk.

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Can I provide students with copies of a transcript of a speech by a politician or other public figure?

Speeches would be copyright as a literary work. You would usually need to obtain permission from the copyright owner before you could copy it. If the speech is available online you could provide students with a link to it or we may be able to add it to eReadings relying on the Part VB educational licence. You can request that the speech be added to eReadings using the eReadings list management tool or email ereserve@flinders.edu.au and the library will investigate the options.

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Can I copy a whole "part" of a book? Is this allowed under the one chapter rule?

No, you can't copy a whole part or section of a book under the 10% or one chapter rule. This applies to personal copying under the fair dealing for study and research exception and to copying for teaching purposes done under the Part VB educational license. Parts are not the same as chapters. If a part is made up of smaller sections these are more likely to be considered chapters even if they are not numbered or called this. If a book is only divided into parts then you'll usually only be able to copy 10% of the total number of pages. If the book is not available at an ordinary commercial price in a reasonable time then you may be able to copy more than this.

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I want to print off some material from the internet and give to students. Can I do this? Can I charge students for the printing?

The Part VB educational licence allows us to copy and communicate online material the same as print material although the same conditions and limitations apply. This means that you can only copy 10% or 1 chapter of a work. This can be difficult to determine with online material but is usually considered to be 10% of the words. A separate pdf document on a website would be considered an individual work so you would not be able to copy the entire document.

There will also be instances where you may also be bound by the licence conditions of the website which will override the Part VB educational licence. You will be bound if you or the University are paying for access (e.g. a library database), you have created an account, or have actively accepted the terms and conditions (e.g. a click-through licence). It is usually worthwhile reading the terms and conditions as some websites may allow copying in certain situations, such as Government websites which are often released under a Creative Commons license.

In practise it is easier to provide students with a link to the materials rather than try and copy them under the Part VB educational licence. If you still wish to copy them and can do so under the educational provisions then you may charge students for the material as long as it is only on a cost recovery basis.   

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How much can I copy from an anthology or a book of conference papers for teaching?

An anthology is a collection of individual smaller works with varying authorship, e.g. poems, short stories, or conference papers. If the individual work is less than 15 pages you may copy all of it; even if the work is greater than 10% of the total pages in the anthology. You can copy more than one work of 15 pages or less, as long as the total amount copied is less than 10% of the anthology.

If a work in an anthology is more than 15 pages check if the work is separately published and available to purchase at an ordinary commercial price in a reasonable time. If it is not, you can copy the complete individual work. If it is separately published and available, you may only copy 10% or 1 chapter (if divided into chapters) of the individual work.

If you wish to make this work available to students online then this needs to be done through the eReadings process. To request eReadings use the eReadings list management tool or email ereserve@flinders.edu.au. For more information visit the information for staff about readings.

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If there is one chapter of a book available on eReadings for another topic can I request that a chapter from a different edition is made available concurrently?

Not if the two editions are substantially the same. This is because they would still be considered to be the same work and therefore a reasonable portion would be 10% or 1 chapter across both editions. If the editions are substantially different then we can treat them as individual works and would be able to add 10% or 1 chapter from both editions.

An edition is considered to be substantially different if there is significant new or different content. Such as new chapters, new authors or if the chapters have been significantly expanded (i.e. they are twice as long). eReadings staff will determine if the editions are substantially different before adding the chapter.

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Can I distribute an article sent to me by the author to my class?

If the author owns the copyright in the article and they have given you permission to do that then yes. It is important that they know of your intention to share it as just providing you with a copy will not give you the right to further copy or communicate it. If you have been given permission to share the article it is advisable to make this clear on the copy, e.g. include a statement saying it is used with permission from the copyright owner. 

It is more common for publishers to own the copyright in articles. In these instances the author of the article cannot give you permission to share it with your class. Instead permission would need to be sought from the copyright owner, e.g. the publisher.

You may also be able to rely of the Part VB educational licence. If you wished to share the article with the class and the author does not own the copyright then the best thing to do would be to request that the article be added to eReadings. To request eReadings use the eReadings list management tool or email ereserve@flinders.edu.au. For more information visit the information for staff about readings.

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Can I keep a reference folder of journal articles for students to look at and copy if they want to for their own purposes?

The Copyright Act’s fair dealing provisions for research and study allows you to copy one article from a journal issue, or more if they are on the same subject. However articles accessed from library databases will be governed by licence conditions which may override these provisions, although most databases allow you to download or print a copy for your own personal use.

This means that while there wouldn't usually be a problem with keeping a folder of articles for your own purposes there may be issues, with both copyright and licence conditions, if students wish to copy from it. If the articles are required reading then you can request that the library add them to eReadings. If the articles are only suggested reading then it would be advisable to provide students with the references and they can find them for themselves.

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How can I determine if the book of readings I produce conforms to copyright?

The Part VB educational licence allows us to copy material for students. The main thing to remember when producing a reader is that the amount of a work that can be included is limited.

The limit is 1 chapter or 10% from a book and 1 article from a journal issue. For physical readers these limits apply per topic. There are some situations where you can exceed these limits, such as when a book is out or print or if journal articles are on the same subject matter. Visit the guidelines for using copyright material in teaching webpage for full details on how much you can copy.

It is also important to note that these limits do not apply to online journals and eBooks which the library provides access to. These resources are governed by licence conditions which often prohibit copying for readers. The library can provide links to these resources through eReadings. If you would still prefer to include an online journal article or eBook chapter in a physical reader please contact the copyright officer for advice.

You must include a cover with information about the reader and a contents page with reference details. For details visit the readers section of the copyright website.

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Can I save copies of electronic journal articles to a shared departmental drive for colleagues to access?

Journal articles from online library databases are governed by licence conditions. The terms and conditions of these licences typically prohibit the copying and sharing articles with other users. It is also important that articles are accessed from the original database as this can affect the distribution of income to publishers and the library also relies on statistics when reviewing subscriptions.

If the article was supplied to you via document delivery then this prohibits further sharing as it was supplied to you for your individual research and study under a provision in the Copyright Act.

Instead of storing copies of the articles you can create a bibliographic database (e.g. a reference list) and include links to the licenced full text articles. If the article is not available via the library then your colleagues can place their own document delivery request and we will source it for them.

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I'm running a professional development workshop/course for non-Flinders staff. Can I copy book chapters and/or share articles downloaded from library databases?

If the participants are required to enrol in the course and are assigned with a FAN & password then it would be treated like all other University courses, visit the Copyright for teaching webpage for more information. If there is no enrolment process you may still be able to rely on the Part VB educational licence as long as the copying is carried out for the educational purposes of the University however material from library databases are governed by licence agreements which generally prohibit sharing.

For these types of courses it is often easier to rely on materials which are freely available online. For example open access journals, materials from institutional repositories, government and ngo reports, open educational resources and materials with Creative Commons licences. You may still not be able to copy these materials in every instance however you can provide links to them. If you would still like to use traditionally published materials or items from library databases in your course/workshop please contact the copyright officer with the list of materials for advice.       

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Images

Can I post archival photographs on social media if I acknowledge the source?

Acknowledging the creator of a photograph is a moral right but acknowledgement on its own is not enough. If you are not the copyright owner of the photograph then you will probably need permission to use it on social media. This is because it would involve copying and communication which are both the exclusive rights of the copyright owner.

Archival photographs will be in the public domain and can be used without permission if they were taken before 1955. If the photograph is not in the public domain you need to ask for permission unless this has already been given in the form of a licence. Many people now release photographs online under Creative Commons licenses which allow you to use them in certain ways without needing to ask. You can find CC licenced photographs by using CC Search.

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Can I use an image (e.g. table, diagram, photograph) from a book or journal article in my lecture? Can I include them in my notes to handout to class or to upload to FLO?

You can copy images from hardcopy sources like a physical book or journal under the Part VB  educational licence. The only restriction is that if the image is available to be purchased separately at an ordinary commercial price in a reasonably time then you will not be able to copy it. It is uncommon for images from books and journals to be available to purchase separately however this condition may affect posters, flashcards or artworks.

You can use online images without needing to check if they are available to purchase separately. The only restriction is if you are governed by any licence conditions that may limit use, for example you would not be able to use an image from a library database without first checking the terms and conditions of the database. This would also apply when you have actively agreed to terms such as accepting a click-through license or creating an account.

You can include images in your lecture presentation, in hardcopy lecture notes which you can hand out in class, and on FLO. If you are including the images on FLO then you will need to include the Part VB copyright warning notice

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Can I use pictures from the internet, including Google images and Wikipedia, in a lecture or handout? What if there is no copyright statement attached?

Online images will almost certainly be copyright even if there is no copyright statement attached.

Part VB of the Copyright Act allows you to copy electronic images (e.g. from the internet) for educational purposes. The only restriction is if you are governed by any licence conditions which may limit use, for example you would not be able to use an image from a library database without first checking the terms and conditions of the database. This would also apply when you have actively agreed to terms such as accepting a click-through license or creating an account, regardless of if you actually read the license. In these instances you might be able to provide students with a link to the image rather than copying it.

You can include images in your lecture presentation, in hardcopy lecture notes which you can hand out in class, and on FLO. If you are including the images on FLO then you will need to include the Part VB copyright warning notice.

If you want to use online images for other purposes you will generally need permission. Many images are now realised online under a Creative Commons license which allows you to use images in certain ways without asking for permission. Many of the images from Wikipedia are release under a CC licence, you can also use CC Search to find images.

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I want to use a photograph in a lecture that shows a person's face, do I need their permission?

This is unlikely to be a copyright issue, unless the photo is a selfie, as the copyright owner is usually the person who took the photo not the subject. There is no specific law in Australia that prohibits using a person’s image without their permission although defamation, consumer law and passing off can apply in some instances.

However, it is polite to ask permission before taking someone’s image and good practice to get them to sign a statement indicating that they give you permission for your proposed use. 

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Music

What copyright is involved in music?

There are a number of different types of copyright in music. Compositions are copyright as musical works, lyrics are copyright as literary works, recordings are copyright as sound recordings, and the typographical layout of sheet music may be copyright as a published edition. The Copyright Act also details a range of performer's rights.

Flinders University is party to an industry music licence which allows the University to use music in a variety of ways. See the music licence page for more information.

If you wish to play live or recorded music in public and your use is not covered by the music licence then you will need permission. This can be achieved by obtaining a licence from APRA (for the copyright in the music and lyrics) and a licence from PPCA (for the copyright in the sound recording).

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Can I play music in the plaza?

You will be able to play music in the plaza in most situations. The University is party to an industry music licence that allows live or recorded music to be publicly performed at University events. If you are a staff or student who has booked the plaza for an event and this is authorised by the University then it will likely fall into the category of a University event.

In addition to the Universities music licence we have also purchased an APRA licence to cover the public performance of music played from the super screen. This includes music which may form part of a film or television show.

There are instances where you will not be able to perform music in the plaza without acquiring an additional licence from APRA and PPCA. This will occur if you are charging for an event as the music licence does not cover paid events. Third parties (i.e. non University staff and students) using the plaza will also need to obtain their own licences.

If you are unsure if your event would be covered by our licences please contact the copyright officer for advice. 

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Can I play music at a social event on campus?

The University is party to an industry music license that allows us to perform live or recorded music at University events. A University event is defined as being a free event which is organised or authorised by the University. It does not have to take place on campus. Most organised events would fall under this category however casual gatherings of students and the like would not be covered by the licence. If you are unsure if your event would be covered by our license please contact the copyright officer for advice.

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Can I play music in my office at the University?

Yes, you can play music in your office as this is covered under the Universities music license which we have signed with APRA|AMCOS, PPCA and ARIA. The music licence allows music to be played for the sole benefit of staff in the workplace which allows you to play music in your office. When playing music it must be from a legitimate source, i.e. not an infringing copy from the internet.

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Can I play music in a lecture? Do I have to remove it from the lecture recording?

Yes, you can play live or recorded music in a lecture if it is for educational purposes. This is allowable under the Copyright Act as classrooms are not considered public places as long as the audience is only made up of students or people associated with the University.

The University is also party to an industry music license which allows music to be included in the lecture recordings, either available for streaming or download. The music copyright warning notice must be included in the recording along with details of the title, name of the composer, lyricist and arranger of the musical work, and the artist/group name and record company label.

When playing music it must be from a legitimate source, i.e. not an infringing copy from the internet. Music from services such as Spotify and iTunes may be restricted by terms and conditions that prohibit public performance. It is your responsibility to check the licence conditions before playing music in public.

For more information visit the music license page.

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Audio Visual (TV, radio, film & YouTube)

Can I copy television or radio broadcasts to use in a lecture?

Yes. Part VA of the Copyright Act allows you or the University to copy television and radio broadcasts for educational purposes. These can be played in lectures and included in the lecture recordings. The copying must be of the broadcast, e.g. from the TV or radio, not a commercially produced product, e.g. DVD of the TV show, or CD of music.

If you want to use something which has previously been broadcast the library may be able to source a copy for you. The library also provides access to EduTV database which contains a wide selection of recordings available for streaming.

The Part VA copyright warning notice must be included at the beginning broadcasts copied under Part VA.

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Can I copy excerpts from a film or TV series that was purchased on DVD?

No. Part VA of the Copyright Act allows staff to copy TV broadcasts but this does not extend to DVDs which are sold separately, even if the program was originally broadcast on TV. If you wish to use the material for educational purposes library staff may be able to source a broadcast copy for you.

In certain special cases you may be able to copy from a DVD under s200AB of the Copyright Act which allows the University to copy for educational purposes if a number of other conditions are met. Each case needs to be examined before this provision can be relied upon. Please contact the copyright officer for advice.

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Can I show a film clip or trailer in my lecture?

Yes. You can show film clips in a lecture as the Copyright Act specifically excludes the classroom as a public space therefore you are not infringing the copyright owner’s right of public performance. However, you will lose this protection if the audience includes members of the public instead of just students and staff of the University (guests involved in teaching are alright).

If you want to play the film from a website or video on demand service (e.g. Netflix, Stan) and you have actively agreed to their terms and conditions (e.g. accepted a click-through license) or have created an account then you will also need to confirm that this is allowable under the terms of their licence. Many of these services specifically prohibit public performance.

Unless the film you are showing was copied from a television broadcast (i.e. when it was shown on TV) you will not be allowed to include it in the lecture recording. TV broadcasts are allowed to be included as this is covered under Part VA of the Copyright Act.

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Can I upload educational videos I make to YouTube?

Yes, you can upload videos to YouTube however you need to be careful that you have permission or that you can rely on an exception in the Copyright Act if you have used any third party copyright material in the video. As videos on YouTube are accessible to the general public (even private videos) you cannot rely on Part VA or VB of the Copyright Act that allows you to copy broadcasts, texts and images for educational purposes. You may be able to rely on the fair dealing provisions for criticism and review, or parody and satire, or if you are only using an insubstantial portion (insubstantial relates to quality not quantity). Generally it is safer if you have permission, either directly from the copyright owner or through a Creative Commons licence.

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Can I embed a YouTube video in FLO or am I only allowed to provide a link to it.

If the embed code is provided (look under the share tab) then you may embed the video in your FLO site. If the embed code is not provided then you can only provide a link to the video. You are only allowed to download a video from YouTube if a specific download link is provided.

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Can I play a YouTube video in a lecture? Do I need to remove it if the lecture is recorded?

Yes, you can play a YouTube video in a lecture as the Copyright Act specifically excludes the classroom as a public space. Therefore you are not infringing the copyright owner’s right of public performance. However you need to remove it from the lecture recording in most cases. This is because it would involve both copying and communicating the video which are exclusive rights of the copyright owner. Some YouTube videos are uploaded under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license, you don't need to remove these videos.

You can also embed the video in FLO if the embed code is provided (look under the share tab) or you can provide a link to the video.    

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Can I alter a YouTube video? For example add a voice over or closed captions.

You will usually need to ask for permission from the copyright owner (often the creator of the video) before you can alter it. YouTube allows videos to be uploaded under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license, videos which have a CC-BY license are allowed to be altered using YouTube’s video editor.

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Can I play a film on the plaza superscreen?

You will generally need to obtain a non-theatrical licence before you can play a film on the plaza super screen or in any other public space. This is because it constitutes a public performance which is one of the exclusive rights of the copyright owner. The two main distributors in Australia which can provide you with the necessary licence are Roadshow and Amalgamated Movies. You usually also need separate licences for any music included in the movie however the University already has the necessary licence to cover music being played on the super screen.

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Can I play YouTube videos on the plaza superscreen?

You will generally need to ask permission to play a YouTube video on the super screen, or in any other public space. This is because it constitutes a public performance which is one of the exclusive rights of the copyright owner. Some YouTube videos are uploaded under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license. Videos with a CC-BY license are able to be played without permission as this right has already been granted. If you do want to play a CC-BY video or you have received permission from the copyright owner then you can play video either directly from YouTube or from their embeddable player. You are not allowed to download the video unless a download option has been made available from YouTube.

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Permissions

I would like to republish or adapt my journal article for a book I am writing. Do I need to get permission from the journal publisher?

If you assigned your copyright or gave the publisher an exclusive right to publish or adapt the article then you will need to seek their permission. If you kept your copyright and gave the publisher a non-exclusive licence then you will be free to adapt or republish the work without seeking permission.You should review your publishing agreement to determine what rights you gave away otherwise most journal publishers have information for authors on their websites that detail if they require authors to transfer copyright and if they allow them to use their work in any other ways (e.g. include in a book or deposit a copy in an institutional repository).

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Do I need permission to include film stills in my thesis?

It is a University rule that an open access version of all Research Higher Degree theses are made available online to the public. While you do not need permission to include film stills in your examined version of your thesis you will either need permission or be able to rely on an exception in the Copyright Act to be able to include them in the open access version.

The main exception you may be able to use is the fair dealing exception for criticism or review. However you will only be able to use this if the still is genuinely included for criticism or review and not just illustration purposes. If you cannot rely on an exception then you must seek permission or remove the still with an explanation, e.g. image removed due to copyright restrictions.  

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Do I need permission to use someone else's model/image in my article which I want to publish?

You will need to seek permission from the copyright owner if you want to reproduce another’s work in your article. The copyright owner may be the author but is more likely to be the publisher. Many publishers require you to gain permission for any third party copyright material you have used before they will accept your publication.

There are a few instances where you may not need to ask for permission. These include if the work is published under an open licence, such as Creative Commons, however you will still need to abide by the terms of the licence. Or if you can rely on an exception, such as fair dealing for criticism and review, although many publishers may still require permission as copyright exceptions vary from country to country.

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How do I obtain copyright permission for a Government work?

The copyright in any material which is created by or under the direction of the Commonwealth, State or Territory is owned by the Crown. Many Government publications are now realised under a Creative Commons licence. This allows you to use the material in certain ways without asking for permission. If the material does not have a Creative Commons licence you will need to ask for permission from the agency that created the material.

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Can I use a student's work without permission?

Under the Flinders University Intellectual Property Policy students retain copyright in their work. Where an academic staff member wishes to make use of a student's work in their own teaching (e.g. as a demonstration piece) the staff member needs to seek permission, preferably in writing, from the student to before using their work.

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