AmeliaAbsence of a limb
AmputationA procedure which removes a part through one or more bones as aposed to disarticulation
Aneurismal Bone CystBenign lesion of bone characterised by lytic expansion of the bone with cavernous blood filled spaces and fibrous septae containing giant cells and immature bone osteoid
Ankylosing SpondylitisA chronic infammatory condition affecting predominantly the spine and sacro-iliac joints characterised by osseous proliferation and is associated with HLA B27
Antiseptics(Mild disinfectants) Relatively non-toxic non-irritant anti microbial agents ® can be applied topically to the body
Arthrogryposis MultiplexCongenital, non progressive limitation of movement due to soft tissue contractures affecting two or more joints
AsepsisPreventing wound contamination by ensuring that only sterile material makes contact with the wound and that airborne transmission of organisms is minimised
AxonotmesisIncomplete division of a nerve such that the axons are divided but endoneural tubes are undamaged and spontaneous recovery is likely
Blounts DiseaseGrowth disturbance of medial aspect of the proximal tibial physis resulting in medial angulation of the tibia in the metaphyseal region
Bone NecrosisDeath of bone from ischaemia ie reduction in O2 supply below that required to sustain life of the cellular component of bone
Bouchard's NodesSimilar to Heberdens osteophytic nodes at the PIP joints in OA
Brodies abscessTranslucent lesion with well defined margin and sclerotic rim usually in the metaphysis of a long bone without ballooning of the bone.
C Reactive ProteinAn acute phase reactant that precipitates with the C polysaccharide of the pneumococcal cell wall
CallusA reparative tissue made up of connective, cartilaginous or bony tissue, or any combination thereof which ultimately ossifies
CartilageConsist of chondrocytes enmeshed in a superhydrated matrix of collagen and proteoglycans
Cerebral PalsyA group of disorders which result from non-progressive cerebral dysfunction, originating before the central nervous system has matured.
Chondro-calcinosisDeposition of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals in joint tissue ® acute and chronic inflammatory joint diseas
Compartment syndromeA condition in which increased tissue pressure within a limited space compromises the circulation and the function of the contents of that space.
Coxa VaraLocalised bony dysplasia of the femoral neck characterised by a decreased neck shaft angle and the presence of a triangular ossification defect in the inferior femoral neck (Fairbanks Triangle)
Chemotherapeutic AgentsChemicals used to kill or inhibit the growth of micro organisms or neoplastic cells directly established in tissues of the body
ChondromalaciaA pathological description which means cartilage softening
ChondrosarcomaPrimary tumour whos cells produce ar cartilage matrix
Dagger SignSingle dense cental line on frontal radiographs related to ossification of supra spinous an inter spinous ligaments
DebridementLiterally means to relieve tensoin by an incision but has also come to imply the removal of debris and dead tissue.
DeformityRefers to a change in structure of a previously normal bone
Developmental dysplasia of the hipReferes to a broad spectrum of conditions characterised by instability of the hip with sublixation or dislocation due to acetabular or femoral dysplasia
Diaphyseal AclasisCondition characterised by multiple cartilaginous and bony exostoses protruding from bones preformed in cartilage.
Direct Fracture HealingThe type of fracture healing osberved with rigid internal fixation and is characterised by the absence of callus formation, the absence of bone surface resorption at the fracture site and the direct formation of bone without intermediary repair tissue.
DisinfectantsSubstances which kill vegitative forms of potentially infectious organisms, and are usually used on surfaces (not the skin)
DislocationAn abnormal position of the osseous structures forming a joint such that there is no longer contact between the normally opposed articularing surfaces
Dupuytrens ContractureFibroblastic proliferation in the volar surface of the hand leading to contracture of fingers as a late but significant result of the disease
DwarfPathological diminution in stature and may be either proportionate or disproportionate
DysplasiaUsed to describe a generalised developmental disorder of bone or cartilage
EburnationProcess in which bone becomes hard and dense like ivory (Latin ebur = ivory) and occurs where bone becomes exposed and subjected to wear
Ehler's Danlos SyndromeAn uncommon familial disorder of connective tissue relating to a genetic defect in Type I collagen
EnchondromaA benign tumour of cartilage originating within the medullary cavity
EnchondromatosisCondition characterised by circumscribed masses of cartilage arranged in linear fashion in the interior of bones.
Olliers' disease refers to a condition where the enchondromata are distributed unilaterally
EnthesopathyInflammation of sites of insertion of tendons and ligaments into bone with or without transient arthritis
Erb's PalsyAn obstetric brachial plexus palsy affecting the 5th, 6th and perhaps 7th cervical roots resulting in paralysis of the external rotators of the shoulder, flexors of the elbow and forearm supinators
FibrillationExposure of collagen fibres or fibrils following the loss of proteoglycans ® roughening and eventually cracking of the cartilage surface
Fibrous DysplasiaA benign fibro-osseous pathologic entity of undetermined aetiology and characterised by expanding fibro osseous tissue in the interior of affected bones (predominantly a lesion of the growing skeleton)
Felty's SyndromeChronic rheumatoid arthritis associated with splenomegally, lymphadenopathy, anaemia, throbocytopenia, leukopenia (neurtophils only) and may be associated with hyperpigmentation and leg ulcers
FractureA sudden rupture of a structure which occurs when the internal stress poduced by load exceeds the limits of strength
Fracture ConsolidationComplete repair, calcified callus is ossified and attemted angulation is painless Repair is complete and further protection is unnecessary.
Fracture Delayed unionA fracture that has not united in what is considered a reasonable amount of time for a fracture of that type in that location
Fracture MalunionConsolidation of the fracture has occured in a deformed position
Fracture Non-unionA fracture that will not unite without surgical intervention (may be hypertrophic, oligotrophic, dystrophic, neuretic, or atrophic)
Fracture UnionIncomplete repair, the bone moves as one but cliniclly it is still a little tender and attempted angulation is painful. The fracture is clearly visible on X-Ray with fluffy callus and is not safe to be left unprotected
GanglionA benign lump characterised by mucinous degeneration within the capsule of a joint, tendon sheath or tendon usually lacking a recognisable lining of differentiated cells (differentiate from a synovial cyst)
Giant Cell Tumour of BoneA benign but often aggressive tumour of bone characterised by the presence of giant osteoclast like cells in a vascular stroma of plump mononuclear spindle cells
GoutDisorder of purine metabolism characterised by hyperuricaemia and recurrent attacks of acute synovitis due to urate crystal deposition
HaemophiliaA group of clinical states manifest by an abnormality of the coagulation mechanism caused by functional deficiencies of specific clotting factors
HealingRestoration of the original integrity and is considered completed when the bone has regained its normal stiffness and strength.
HemimeliaAbsence of part of a limb which may either be transverse or paraxial (longitudinal)
Histiocytosis XA non neoplastic proliferation of histiocytes with reactive inflammation
Indirect Fracture HealingBone healing as observed in nontreated or fractures treated without rigid fixation where callus formation is predominant and bone formation results from a process of transormation of fibrous and or cartilaginous tissue to bone
InstabilityA condition of a joint caracterised by an abnormal increased range of motion due to injury of ligaments, capsule, menisci, cartilage or bone
Juvenile Chronic ArthitisNon infective, inflammatory arthritis in children under the age of 16 years of age
Kienbock's DiseaseAvascular necrosis of the carpal lunate
Klumpke's PalsyAn obstetric brachial plexus palsy affecting predominantly the lower roots of the plexus (C8 & T1) resulting in flexion contracture of the elbow with posterior subluxation or dislocation of the radial head and paralysis of long finger flexors and extensors as well as intrinsic muscles of the hand
LaxitySlackness or lack of tension Looseness, reffering to a normal or abnormal range of motion of a joint
Magnetic Resonance ImagingA non invasive method of imaging by measuring the emitted energy from a certain atomic nuclei in a magnetic field when stimulated by a radiofrequency energy
MalformationDenotes a primary abnormality of development
Muscle DystrophiesFamilial disorders characterised by progressive weakness of muscle associated with areas of degeneration and regeneration due to a primary defect in the muscle (Duchenne, Beckers)
Muscle AtrophiesDisorders characterised by weakness where muscles cells show degeneration within areas of normal tissue where the muscle changes are secondary to disorders of its innovation
NeurapraxiaPhysiological interruption of a nerve where there the axon is intact and there is degeneration of the myelin sheath
NeuromaNot a tumour but an overgrowth of neural connective tissue following trauma eg amputation, pressure ® pain and localised tenderness
Neuropathic Joints (Charcot)A joint in which the appreciation of pain and position sence is lost or significantly deminished
NeurotmesisComplete division of a nerve or scaring such that the nerve cannot regenerate spontaneously
OsteoarthritisA degenerative joint disorder in which there is progressive loss of articular cartilage accompainied by new bone formation and capsular fibrosis
OsteochondromaThe commonest benign tumour of bone (affecting only bones formed in cartliage) characterised by a bony projection from the metaphysis covered with a cartelage cap
Osteochondritis DissecansA joint affliction characterised by partial or complete detachment of a fragment of articular cartilage and bone
Osteogenesis imperfectaA connective tissue disorder characterised by osteoporosis, fragile bones, dentinogenesis imperfecta, deafness, blue sclera, ligamentous hyper mobility, herniae and they bruise easily.
Osteoid OsteomaA benign tumour of bone characterised by a nidus of less than 1cm diameter consisting of a maze of osteoid tissue with trabeculae of newly formed and poorly mineralised bone in a vascular connective tissue network and usually encased in dense reactive bone
OsteomalaciaRickets and osteomalacia are different expressions of the same disease, and are characterised by inadequate mineralisation of bone
Osteomyelitis (Acute)Inflammation of marrow and hard tissue elements of bone as a result of infection
Osteomyelitis (Chronic)Clinical or radiological evidence of infection of bone of greater than six weeks duration
OsteoporosisThe composition of bone is normal but the amount of bone per unit volume is less than normal
OsteosarcomaPrimary tumour arising from bone and producing bone with variants depending on the appearance of the prominent cell type
Paget's DiseaseCondition characterised by high rates of bone resorption and disorganised immature new bone formation ® abnormal remodelling of bone
PannusGranulation tissue composed of proliferating fibroblasts, numerous small blood vessels and various types of inflammatory cells
Pathological FractureA fracture through abnormal bone resulting from a force that would not disrupt normal bone
Perthes DiseaseOsteonecrosis of the proximal femoral epiphysis in a growing child caused by poorly understood non genetic factors
PhocomeliaAbsence of central elements with fore-shortening of the extremity
Pigmented Villo Nodular SynovitisDiffuse proliferation of synovial lining and stroma of synovial joints or tendons
PolioA disease caused by the polio virus which affects the anterior horn cells particularly in the lumbar and cervical segments of the spinal cord leading to muscle weakness, wasting and limb shortening
Protrusio AcetabulaeMedial displacement of the floor of the acetabulum:
It the medial wall of the acetabulum is 3mm or more medial to the ilioischial line in a male or 6mm medial to it in a female (normally 2mm lateral to this line)
Reflex Sympathetic DystrophyAn abnormal reaction to injury characterised by pain, swelling, stiffness, vasomotor changes and osteoporosis of the affected part
Reiters DiseaseA seronegative spondylo-arthropathy that follows a non-specific urogenital or bowel infection.
The clasical triad of arthritis, urethritis and conjunctivitis was described by H. Reiter in 1916
Rheumatoid ArthritisChronic inflammatory disease in which non suppurative inflammation of diarthrodial joints is associated with a variety of extra articular manifestations.
Rheumatoid FactorImmunoglobin that acts against the FC portion of IgG, usually multivalent IgM however many patients have both IgG and IgA rheumatoid factor in their sera. IgE Rh factor which act against different portions of the IgG structure have also been identified.
Sheep agglutination test dependant on the presence of multivalent IgM
Rheumatoid NoduleGranulomatous lesion with central necrosis surrounded by palisades of radially disposed local histiocytes and surrounded by inflammatory granulation tissue
RicketsA disease of calcium and phosphate metabolism in children due to a deficiency of Vitamin D and which chiefly affects areas of active enchondral ossification
SarcoidosisGranulomatous disorder of unknown aetiology affecting multiple organ systems especially in young adults
ScoliosisLateral curvature of the spine of 10o or more with associated vertebral rotation (SRS)
ScurvyVitamin C deficiency leading to failure of collagen synthesis and osteoid formation which is most marked in infants in juxta epiphyseal bone
SLEChronic inflammatory condition characterised by the presence of anti-nuclear antibodies.
Slipped EpiphysisProgressive displacement of the femoral head relative to the neck through an open growth plate.
Spinal DysraphismCondition where the posterior vertebral arch is unfused, with or without protrusion or dysplasia of the spinal cord or its membranes
Spinal ShockThe complete cessation of all voluntary and reflex activity below the level of a spinal cord injury immediately following that injury. Reflex activity returning within 24 hours to 3 months
SpondylodiscitisLoss of inter vertebral disk height and extensive new bone formation resembling infection without clinical or laboratory evidence to support the diagnosis
SprainInjury resulting in stretching or tearing of ligament fibres but which does not completely disrupt the ligament (as apposed to ligament rupture)
SterilisationProcess where by all living organisms including spores are destroyed
StiffnessThe resistance of a structure to deformation and is dependent on Young's modulus of elasticity (changes in the geometry are much more critical than changes in material properties)
Strain: (Mechanical)Ratio of change in length of a substance when loaded or stressed to its original length (relative deformation)
Strain: (Muscular)Stretching injury to a musculo tendinous attachment to bone
StrengthThe ability to withstand load without structural failure
StressRatio of load to crossectional area
Stress FractureFracture produced in normal bone by abnormal repetitive load
SubluxationA partial dislocation in which there is abnormal position of the osseous structures forming a joint however a portion of the opposing articular surfaces are still in contact
SyndesmophyteOssification within the annulus fibrosus leading to thin vertical radio dense areas. Predominantly in anterior and lateral aspects of the spine
Synovial ChondromatosisProliferation of islands of irregular cellular cartilage in the synovium of a joint without underlying arthritis
TenolysisRelease of tendons from restricting adhesions
TetanusDisease secondary to a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani
Unicameral Bone CystBenign developmental lesion of bone characterised by a single fluid filled symmetrically expanding cavity but may be multilocular and even multi cameral after fractures.
Wormian BonesDetached portions of the primary ossification centres of adjacent membrane bones. Should be more than 10 to be significant, and should measure 6mm x 4mm. Arranged in a mosaic pattern. (Claus Wormius, Danish anatomist)
Seen in Cleidocranial dysplasia, Pykinodysostosis, Hypoposphatasia and Hypothyroidism