Position

Strategic Professor in Medical Education
FHCWI Medical Course

Biography

Lambert Schuwirth graduated from Maastricht Medical School as an MD. He became involved in medical education and medical education research since 1990. His main interest is in assessment of medical competence and performance, both in undergraduate and postgraduate training settings. He has worked at Maastricht University for almost 20 years as assistant, associate and full professor in the department of educational development and research, before coming to Flinders in August 2011.

Qualifications

MD,
PhD

Key responsibilities

To lead research in medical education

Teaching interests

How to do scientific research

How do people learn better

Basics of assessment

Topic Lecturer:

Research expertise

  • Health professional education
  • Medical education

Research interests

health professional education
medical education
assessment of learning
assessment for learning
programmatic assessment
progress testing
curriculum development
selection/admission
IT in assessment

Supervisory interests

  • Assessment
  • Assessment design
  • Clinical education
  • Cognitive psychology and educational practice
  • Education, health, curriculum development
  • Education, medical
  • Educational assessment
  • International assessments
  • Outcomes of innovation in medical education

RHD research supervision

Current

Principal supervisor : student-centred education in an information-rich environment (1) ; roles of good clinical supervisor (1) ; connected agile learning focussed communication in the clinical context (1) ; IT support tools for item writers in testing (Free Univ. Amsterdam) (1) ; Conflicting roles of clinical supervisors (Maastricht Univ.) (1) ; pharmacy education (Maarstricht Univ.) (1) ; combining formative and summative functions in assessment (Maarstricht Univ.) (1) ;

Associate supervisor : cultures and discourses in clinical reasoning (1) ; cultural understanding of the paramedics internship (1) ;

Completion

Principal supervisor : Workplace-based assessment (Maarstricht Univ.) (1) ; Influence of assessment on learning behaviour (Maarstricht Univ.) (1) ; Quality of assessment programmes (Maarstricht Univ.) (1) ; Collaborative learning in active learning environments (Maarstricht Univ.) (1) ; Dental education and assessment (Maarstricht Univ.) (1) ; Assessment of clinical reasoning (Maarstricht Univ.) (1) ; Professionalism in medical education (Maarstricht Univ.) (1) ; Selection into the medical course as the first step in programmatic assessment (Maarstricht Univ.) (1) ; Impact of programmatic assessment on student learning (Maarstricht Univ.) (1) ;

Publications

  • Durning, S., Rencic, J. and Schuwirth, L.W. (2015). Assessing Clinical Reasoning. In Pangaro Louis N. & William C. McGaghie, ed. Handbook on Medical Student Evaluation and Assessment. New York, United States of America: Alliance for Clinical Education, pp. 127-144.
  • Cilliers, F., Schuwirth, L.W. and van der Vleuten, C. (2015). Health behaviour theories: a conceptual lens to explore behaviour change. In J Cleland, & SJ Durning, ed. Researching Medical Education. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc, pp. 141-153.
    [10.1002/9781118838983.ch13]
  • Schuwirth, L. (2014). Toetsen met korte casussen [Assessment with short cases] In Henk van Berkel, Anneke Bax, Desirée Joosten-ten Brinke, ed. Toetsen in het hoger onderwijs [Assessment in higher education] Chapter 13 ed. The Netherlands: Bohn Stafleu van Loghum B.V., pp. 143-155.
    [10.1007/978-90-368-0239-0] [10.1007/978-90-368-0239-0_13]
  • Schuwirth, L. and Ash, J.K. (2013). Principles of Assessment. In K Walsh, ed. Oxford Textbook of Medical Education. 1st ed. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, pp. 409-420.
    [Web Link]
  • Schuwirth, L.W. and Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. (2013). Written assessment. In John Dent, Ronald M Harden, ed. A Practical Guide for Medical Teachers. 4th Edition ed. London, United Kingdom: Churchill Livingstone, pp. 299-306.
  • Schuwirth, L.W., Ward, H.M. and Heeneman, S. (2013). Assessment for learning. In Joy Higgs, Dale Sheehan, Julie Baldry Currens, Will Letts, Gail M. Jensen, ed. Realising Exemplary Practice-Based Education. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers, pp. 143-150.
  • Schuwirth, L.W. and Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. (2012). Assessing Competence: Extending the Approaches to Reliability. In Brian D. Hodges, Lorelei Lingard, M. Brownell Anderson, ed. The Question of Competence: reconsidering medical education in the twenty-first century (The Culture and Politics of Health Care Work) USA: Cornell University, pp. 113-130.
  • Schuwirth, L.W., Colliver, J., Gruppen, L., Kreiter, C., Mennin, S., Onishi, H., et al. (2012). Research on Assessment Practices. In William McGaghie, ed. International Best Practices for Evaluation in the Health Professions. Abingdon UK: Radcliffe Publishing, Ltd, pp. Chapter-16.
  • Schuwirth, L.W.T. and Van der Vleuten, C. (2011). Conceptualising surgical education assessment. In Fry, H. and Kneebone, R., ed. Surgical Education, theorising an emerging domain. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer, pp. 75-90.
    [10.1007/978-94-007-1682-7_5]
  • Schuwirth, L.W. and Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. (2010). Cost-effective assessment. In Kieran Walsh, ed. Cost Effectiveness in Medical Education. 1 ed. N/A: Radcliffe Publishing Ltd, pp. 94-100.
  • Schuwirth, L.W. and Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. (2010). Assessment in problem-based learning. In Henk van Berkel, Albert Scherpbier, Harry Hillen, Cees van der Vleuten, ed. Lessons from Problem-based Learning. 1 ed. USA: Oxford University Press, pp. 193-202.
    [10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199583447.003.0021] [Scopus]
  • Schuwirth, L.W. and Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. (2010). Written Assessment. In Peter Cantillon, Diana Wood, ed. ABC of Learning and Teaching in Medicine. 2 ed. N/A: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 38-41.
  • Schuwirth, L.W.T. and Van der Vleuten, C. (2010). How to design a useful test: the principles of assessment. In Swanwick T., ed. Understanding Medical Education. Oxford, UK: Wiley Blackwell, pp. 195-207.
    [10.1002/9781444320282.ch14]
  • Schuwirth, L.W. and Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. (2009). Written assessment. In John Dent, Ronald M Harden, ed. A Practical Guide for Medical Teachers. 3rd Edition ed. N/A: Churchill Livingstone, pp. 325-332.
  • Van der Vleuten, C., Norman, R. and Schuwirth, L. (2008). Assessing clinical reasoning. In Joy Higgs J, Mark A Jones, Stephen Loftus, Nicole Christensen, ed. Clinical reasoning in the health professions. 3 ed. N/A: Elsevier, pp. 413-421.
  • Schuwirth, L. and Van der Vleuten, C. (2005). Written assessment. In John A. Dent, Ronald M. Harden, ed. A practical guide for medical teachers. Second Edition ed. N/A: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone.
  • Clauser, B. and Schuwirth, L. (2002). The Use of Computers in Assessment. In Geoff R. Norman, Cees P.M. van der Vleuten and David I. Newble, ed. International Handbook of Research in Medical Education. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 757-793.
    [10.1007/978-94-010-0462-6]
  • Schuwirth, L. (2002). Toetsing met korte casus. In H.J.M. van Berkel; Anneke Bax, ed. Toetsen In Het Hoger Onderwijs. The Netherlands: Bohn Stafleu van Loghum B.V..
  • Schuwirth, L. and Van der Vleuten, C. (2000). Toetsing van probleemoplossend vermogen, computergestuurde casusgerichte toetsing. In Heijnen G, Meerder S, ed. Toetsen en ICT in het hoger onderwijs. Utrecht, The Netherlands: SURF, pp. 155-161.
    [Web Link]
  • Van der Vleuten, C., Schuwirth, L., Muijtjens, A. and Driessen, E. (2000). De rol van ICT in studietoetsen: een verkenning. In Heijnen G, Meerder S, ed. Toetsen en ICT in het hoger onderwijs. Utrecht, The Netherlands: SURF, pp. 7-15.
    [Web Link]
  • Schuwirth, L. (1997). Betrouwbaarheid en validiteit van toetsen. In De Jong PGM, Bloemendaal P, ed. Toetsing in de basisopleiding en het postacademisch onderwijs. The Netherlands: Met illustraties, pp. 67-77.
  • Schuwirth, L. (1996). Grundsätze zur Evaluation und deren Implementierung in den Lehralltag. In Koebke J, Neugebauer E, Lefering R, ed. Die Qualität der Lehre in der Medizin. Munich, Germany: Urban und Schwarzenberg, pp. 371-378.
  • Schuwirth, L. (1995). Casustoetsing. In Metz, J.C.M., Scherpbier, A.J.J.A., van der Vleuten, C.P.M. e.a., ed. Medisch Onderwijs in de Praktijk. Assen, The Netherlands: Van Gorcum, pp. 189-195.
  • Schmidt, L., Schuwirth, L.W., O'Keefe, M. and King, S.M. (2016). Better Judgement-2: Improving assessors' management of factors affecting their judgement. Canberra: Australian Government.
    [Web Link]
  • Schmidt, L. and Schuwirth, L. (2013). Final Report - Better Judgement: Improving assessors' management of factors affecting their judgement. Sydney: Australian Government Office for Learning and Teaching.
    [Web Link]
  • Van der Vleuten, C. and Schuwirth, L. (2006). How to Design a Useful Test: The Principles of Assessment. N/A: Association for the Study of Medical Education (ASME).
  • Schuwirth, L. and Verwijnen, G. (2000). De constructie van juist/onjuist vragen. The Netherlands: Universiteit Maastricht.
  • Schuwirth, L. (1998). An approach to the assessment of medical problem solving : Computerised Case-based Testing. The Netherlands: University of Maastricht Press.
  • Schmidt, L., Schuwirth, L.W. and King, S.M. (2016). Better judgement: The serendipity of training assessors about judgement biases. Ottawa Conference. Perth, Western Australia.
  • Schmidt, L., Schuwirth, L.W. and King, S.M. (2016). Judgement biases in assessment. 43rd Association for Medical Education in Europe. Barcelona, Spain.
  • Young, M.E., Thomas, A., Lubarsky, S., Ballard, T., da Silva, A., Gordon, D., et al. (2016). Defining clinical reasoning: preliminary findings from a BEME scoping study. Association of Medical Educators of Europe. Barcelona, spain. Aug 2016.
  • Young, M.E., Thomas, A., Lubarsky, S., Ballard, T., Gordon, D., Gruppen, L., et al. (2016). The difficulty of defining clinical reasoning. Montreal International Conference on Clinical Reasoning. Montreal, QC, Canada. Oct 2016.
  • Veysey, M., Duvivier, R., Schuwirth, L.W., Kumar, K. and Jolly, B. (2016). Are students able to set standards for year one assessments. ANZAHPE (Australian and New Zealand Association for Health Professional Educators) Conference 2016. Perth, WA, Australia. Mar 2016.
  • Schuwirth, L.W. (2016). Assessment in general practice: integration and continuity of assessment, why and how. RACGP update conference. Melbourne. Dec 2016.
  • Schuwirth, L.W. (2016). Assessment of cultural competence and values for health professionals. International Medical Education Conference (IMEC) Kuala Lumpur. Apr 2016.
  • Schuwirth, L.W. (2016). Assessment of cultural competence. International Medical Education Conference (IMEC) Kuala Lumpur. Apr 2016.
  • Schuwirth, L.W. (2016). Assessment of medical competence: methods and programmes. Paediatrics Update Conference. Auckland, New Zealand. Mar 2016.
  • Schuwirth, L.W. (2016). How do people learn anyway? American Thoracic Society Conference. San Francisco. May 2016.
  • Schuwirth, L.W. (2016). How do people learn anyway? Paediatrics Update Conference. Auckland, New Zealand. Mar 2016.
  • Schuwirth, L.W. (2016). If ‘dyscompetence’ were a disease; what would your diagnostic work-up be? Clinical Skills Development Service Annual Update Meeting. Brisbane. May 2016.
  • Schmidt, L., Schuwirth, L.W. and King, S.M. (2015). Judgement biases in assessment: For better or worse? Society for Research into Higher Education Annual Conference.
  • Schmidt, L. and Schuwirth, L.W. (2014). Better Judgement: recognising and managing judgement biases in oral and workplace-based assessment. 41st Association for Medical Education in Europe Conference. Milan, Italy. Aug 2014.
    [Web Link]
  • Schmidt, L. and Schuwirth, L. (2013). Better Judgement: Improving assessors' management of factors affecting their judgement. 40th Association for Medical Education in Europe Conference. Prague, Czech Republic. Aug 2013.
    [Web Link]
  • Schmidt, L. and Schuwirth, L. (2013). Supporting a place for better judgement in oral and practice-based assessment. Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia Conference 2013. Auckland, New Zealand. Jul 2013.
    [Web Link]
  • Bramwell, D., Ash, J.K. and Schuwirth, L. (2012). Preconference Workshop: Assessing student competence with the Mini-CEX- what's in it for me? AMEE 2012 Conference Lyon, France.
  • Walters, L.K., Greenhill, J.A. and Schuwirth, L.W. (2012). Outcomes of rural Longitudinal Integrated student placements: what does it mean for clinicians, students and society? Rural Medicine Australia Conference.
  • Schmidt, L. and Schuwirth, L. (2012). Ensuring quality graduates for our partners through the better judgment skills of assessors in oral and practice-based assessment. In Partnerships 7th ERGA Conference. 7th ERGA Conference. Adelaide, South Australia. Sep 2012.
    [Web Link]
  • LaRochelle, J.S., Durning, S.J., Pangaro, L.N., Artino, A.R., Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. and Schuwirth, L.W. (2012). Impact of Increased Authenticity in Instructional Format on Preclerkship Students' Performance: A Two-Year, Prospective, Randomized Study. In Academic Medicine. Research In Medical Education (RIME) Conference. San Francisco, USA, pp. 1341-1347.
    [Web Link]
  • Schuwirth, L.W. (2010). From Assessment of Learning to Assessment for Learning. In The Journal of the International Association of Medical Science Educators (JIAMSE) N/A, pp. 170-172.
    [Web Link]
  • Schuwirth, L.W., Verheggen, M.M. and Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. (2000). An investigation of the nature of the cueing effect. . In Assessment of Competence Assessment of Competence in Medicine and the Healthcare Professions . Association for Medical Education in Europe (AMEE). 9th Ottawa Conference. Cape Town, South Africa.
  • Van Den Wildenberg, F.A.J.M. and Schuwirth, L.W. (2000). The development of a key-feature approach surgery examination. In Assessment of Competence Assessment of Competence in Medicine and the Healthcare Professions . 9th Ottawa Conference. Cape Town, South Africa.
  • Verheggen, M.M., Schuwirth, L.W., van Os, J., Mom, E.M.A. and Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. (2000). Is a standard an indication of examinees' or judge competency? In Assessment of Competence Assessment of Competence in Medicine and the Healthcare Professions . Association for Medical Education in Europe (AMEE). 9th Ottawa Conference. Cape Town, South Africa.
  • Schuwirth, L.W., Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. and Verheggen, M.M. (1999). Hoe stabiel zijn Angoff-grenzen zonder consensusronde bij casusgerichte toetsing? In Proceedings of the Derde Gezond Onderwijs Congres . Gezond Onderwijs Congres (GOC) 8, pp. 267-269.
  • Schuwirth, L.W. (1998). Caesuurbepaling. In Proceedings of the Derde Gezond Onderwijs Congres . Gezond Onderwijs Congres (GOC) 7, pp. 265-267.
  • Schuwirth, L.W., Van Den Wildenberg, F.A.J.M. and Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. (1998). A computerized surgery examination using short cases. In Assessment of Competence Assessment of Competence in Medicine and the Healthcare Professions . Association for Medical Education in Europe (AMEE). 8th Ottawa Conference. Philadelphia, USA.
  • Schuwirth, L.W., Verheggen, M.M., Mom, E.M.A. and Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. (1998). Een directe en indirecte validering van computergestuurde casusgerichte toetsing. In Proceedings of the Derde Gezond Onderwijs Congres . Gezond Onderwijs Congres (GOC) 7, pp. 261-263.
  • Schuwirth, L.W., Verheggen, M.M., Boshuizen, H.P.A., Van der Waart, T. and Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. (1998). Validering van de key-feature approach door middel van hardop denkprotocollen. In Proceedings of the Derde Gezond Onderwijs Congres . Gezond Onderwijs Congres (GOC) 7, pp. 311-312.
  • Schuwirth, L.W., Verheggen, M.M., Boshuizen, H.P.A., Van der Waart, T. and Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. (1998). Validation of key-feature assessment using think aloud protocols, first results. In Assessment of Competence Assessment of Competence in Medicine and the Healthcare Professions . Association for Medical Education in Europe (AMEE). 8th Ottawa Conference. Philadelphia, USA.
  • Albano, M.G., Cavallo, F., Hoogenboom, R.J.I., Magni, F., Majoor, G.D., Manetti, F., et al. (1995). Internationale vergelijking van kennisontwikkeling bij studenten geneeskunde. In Proceedings of the Derde Gezond Onderwijs Congres. Gezond Onderwijs Congres (GOC) 5, pp. 249-254.
  • Schuwirth, L.W., Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. and Donkers, H.(.H.L.M. (1994). Computerized long-menu questions, an acceptable un-cue-version. In Assessment of Competence in Medicine and the Healthcare Professions. 6th Ottawa Conference. Toronto, Canada, pp. 178-181.
  • Van der Vleuten, C.P.M., Schuwirth, L.W. and Ronteltap, C.F.M. (1994). A cognitive psychological interpretation of a few remarkable psychometric findings. In Assessment of Competence in Medicine and the Healthcare Professions. 6th Ottawa Conference. Toronto, Canada, pp. 506-508.
  • Schuwirth, L.W., Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. and Donkers, H.(.H.L.M. (1992). Open-Ended Questions versus Multiple Choice Questions. In Assessment of Competence in Medicine and the Healthcare Professions. 5th Ottawa Conference. Dundee, UK, pp. 486-491.
  • McBee, E., Schuwirth, L.W. and Durning, S. (2017). In Reply to Ma et al. Academic Medicine, 92(4) pp. 426-427.
    [10.1097/ACM.0000000000001615] [Scopus] [Web Link]
  • Durning, S., Artino Jr, A.R., Costanzo, M.E., Beckman, T.J., van der Vleuten, C., Roy, M.J., et al. (2016). Response to: Functional neuroimaging and diagnostic reasoning. Medical Teacher, 38(7) pp. 753-754.
    [10.3109/0142159X.2016.1150991] [Scopus]
  • Scott, K., Caldwell, P. and Schuwirth, L.W. (2016). Response to Ten steps to health professional education research. The Clinical Teacher, 13(2) pp. 167-167.
    [10.1111/tct.12464]
  • Schuwirth, L.W. (2015). Yes, But Does It Produce Better Doctors? Military Medicine, 180(S4) pp. 161-162.
    [10.7205/MILMED-D-14-00717]
  • Schuwirth, L. (2014). From Structured, Standardized Assessment to Unstructured Assessment in the Workplace. Journal of Graduate Medical Education, 6(1) pp. 165-166.
    [10.4300/JGME-D-13-00416.1]
  • Hu, W., McColl, G., Thistlethwaite, J., Schuwirth, L.W.T. and Wilkinson, T. (2013). Where's the next generation of medical educators? Medical Journal of Australia, 198(1) pp. 8-9.
    [10.5694/mja12.11654] [Scopus]
  • Schuwirth, L.W. (2013). Making the horse drink: use of mini-CEX in an assessment for learning view. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 18(1) pp. 1-4.
    [10.1007/s10459-012-9423-7] [Scopus]
  • Schuwirth, L.W.T. and Swanson, D. (2013). Standardised versus individualised assessment: related problems divided by a common language. Medical Education, 47(6) pp. 627-631.
    [10.1111/medu.12111] [Scopus]
  • Schuwirth, L.W.T. (2013). 'Emotions in learning' are more than merely 'learning of emotions' Medical Education, 47(1) pp. 14-15.
    [10.1111/medu.12078] [Scopus]
  • Dijksterhuis, M., Schuwirth, L.W.T., Braat, D. and Scheele, F. (2011). What's the problem with the mini-CEX. Medical Education, 45(3) pp. 318-319.
    [10.1111/j.1365-2923.2010.03927.x] [Scopus]
  • Schuwirth, L.W.T. (2010). Medical education and other disciplines. Medical Education, 44(1) pp. 13-14.
    [10.1111/j.1365-2923.2009.03538.x] [Scopus]
  • Schuwirth, L.W. (2009). Is assessment of clinical reasoning still the Holy Grail? Medical Education, 43(4) pp. 298-300.
    [10.1111/j.1365-2923.2009.03290.x] [Scopus]
  • Schuwirth, L.W. (2009). What costs complexity and what price simplicity? Medical Teacher, 31(6) pp. 475-476.
    [10.1080/01421590802680602] [Scopus] [Web Link]
  • Schuwirth, L.W. (2008). The use of computer-based assessment. Medical Teacher, 30(7) pp. 651.
    [10.1080/01421590802279603] [Scopus]
  • Schuwirth, L.W. (2007). The need for national licensing examinations. Medical Education, 41(11) pp. 1022-1023.
    [10.1111/j.1365-2923.2007.02856.x] [Scopus]
  • Schuwirth, L.W. and Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. (2006). Challenges for educationalists. British Medical Journal, 333(7567) pp. 544-546.
    [10.1136/bmj.38952.701875.94] [Scopus]
  • Van der Vleuten, C.P.M., Schuwirth, L.W., Muijtjens, A.M.M., Thoben, A.J.N.M., Cohen-Schotanus, J. and van Boven, C.P.A. (2006). Progress Testing: Response from C.P.M. van der Vleuten et al. Medical Teacher, 28(1) pp. 92-93.
    [10.1080/01421590500315097] [Web Link]
  • Schuwirth, L. (2005). What the educators are saying. BMJ (International Edition) 331(7513) pp. 392.
    [Web Link] [Web Link]
  • Schuwirth, L. and Cantillon, P. (2005). The need for outcome measures in medical education. BMJ (International Edition) 331(7523) pp. 977-978.
    [10.1136/bmj.331.7523.977] [Scopus] [Web Link]
  • Schuwirth, L.W. (2004). Learning by scar formation. Medical Education, 38(8) pp. 797-799.
    [10.1111/j.1365-2929.2004.01906.x] [Scopus]
  • Schuwirth, L.W. and Cantillon, P. (2004). What the educators are saying. British Medical Journal, 328(7450) pp. 1244.
    [10.1136/bmj.328.7450.1244] [Scopus] [Web Link]
  • Schuwirth, L.W. and Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. (2004). Merging views on assessment. Medical Education, 38(12) pp. 1208-1210.
    [10.1111/j.1365-2929.2004.02055.x] [Scopus]
  • Schuwirth, L.W. (2002). Can clinical reasoning be taught or can it only be learned? Medical Education, 36(8) pp. 695-696.
    [10.1046/j.1365-2923.2002.01274.x] [Scopus]
  • Schuwirth, L.W. (2002). Professional development in undergraduate medical curricula from an assessment point of view. Medical Education, 36, Issue2(4) pp. 312-313.
    [10.1046/j.1365-2923.2002.01177.x] [Scopus]
  • Albano, M.G., Cavallo, F., Hoogenboom, R.J.I., Magni, F., Majoor, G.D., Manenti, F., et al. (1998). Un confronto internazionale dei livelli di conoscenza degli studenti in Medicina: il Progress test di Maastricht. [Comparing medical students' knowledge using the Maastricht progress test]. MEDIC Metodologia e Didattica Clinica, 6(1) pp. 16-21.
  • Blaauw, A.A.M., Schuwirth, L.W., Van der Vleuten, C.P.M., de Rooij, M.J.M., Smits, F. and Van Der Linden, S. (1994). Do General Practitioners Recognize Cases of Lyme Borreliosis in the Netherlands? Journal of spirochetal and Tick-Borne Diseases, 1(3) pp. 68-73.
  • Van der Vleuten, C.P.M., Van Luijk, S.J. and Schuwirth, L.W. (1994). Toetsing En Toetsontwikkeling In Het medish Onderwijs [Checking and check development in medical teaching ] . NEDERLANDS TIJDSCHRIFT VOOR GENEESKUNDE, 138(25) pp. 1288-1292.
    [PubMed]
  • Hage, J.J., Reinders, J.F.M. and Schuwirth, L.W. (1990). Simultaneous dislocation of both interphalangeal joints in a finger . Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, 109(3) pp. 179-180.
    [Web Link]
  • Schmidt, L. and Schuwirth, L. (2014). Better Judgement Channel. Adelaide, Australia
    [Web Link]
  • Muijtjens, A.M.M., Hoogenboom, R.J.I., Schuwirth, L.W., Verwijnen, G.M. and Wijnen, W.H.F.W. (1999). Gokcorrectie rekening houdend met itemeigenschappen: effect op de betrouwbaarheid van de voortgangstoets. In Proceedings of the Derde Gezond Onderwijs Congres . Gezond Onderwijs Congres (GOC) 8, pp. 224-227.
  • Van der Vleuten, C.P.M., Dolmans, D., Scherpbier, A., Schuwirth, L.W. and Wolfhagen, I.H.A.P. (1998). Het artsexamen getoetst. In Proceedings of the Derde Gezond Onderwijs Congres . Gezond Onderwijs Congres (GOC) 7, pp. 13-16.
  • Majoor, G.D., Forget, P., Gaudin, O., Hoogenboom, R.J.I. and Schuwirth, L.W. (1997). Vergelijking van kennisontwikkeling bij studenten geneeskunde van een Franse en een Nederlandse faculteit. In Proceedings of the Derde Gezond Onderwijs Congres . Gezond Onderwijs Congres (GOC) 6, pp. 164-168.
  • Schuwirth, L.W., Van der Vleuten, C.P.M., De Kock, C.A. and Op't Root, J.M.H. (1995). De betrouwbaarheid van Computergestuurde Casusgerichte Toetsing. In Proceedings of the Derde Gezond Onderwijs Congres. Gezond Onderwijs Congres (GOC) 5, pp. 367-372.
  • De Kock, C.A., Stoffers, H.E.J.H., Op't Root, J.M.H., Schuwirth, L.W. and Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. (1994). De ontwikkeling van een computergestuurde casusgerichte toets voor het praktisch medisch onderwijs in de huisartsgeneeskunde CCT-PMOH. In Proceedings of the Derde Gezond Onderwijs Congres. Gezond Onderwijs Congres (GOC) 4, pp. 103-109.
  • Schuwirth, L.W., Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. and Stoffers, H.E.J.H. (1994). Computergestuurde Long-Menu vragen, een alternatief voor korte open vragen in computergestuurde toetsing. In Proceedings of the Derde Gezond Onderwijs Congres. Gezond Onderwijs Congres (GOC) 4, pp. 239-246.
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    [10.3109/0142159X.2010.509418] [Scopus]
  • Van der Vleuten, C.P.M., Schuwirth, L.W.T., Scheele, F., Driessen, E. and Hodges, B. (2010). The assessment of professional competence: building blocks for theory development. Best Practice and Research in Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 24(6) pp. 703-719.
    [10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2010.04.001] [Scopus]
  • Grijpink-Van den Biggelaar, K., Drop, S. and Schuwirth, L.W.T. (2010). Development of an e-learning portal for paediatric endocrinology: Educational considerations. Hormone Research, 73(3) pp. 223-230.
    [10.1159/000284366] [Scopus]
  • Dijksterhuis, M.M.G., Voorhuis, M., Teunissen, P.W., Schuwirth, L.W., Ten Cate, O.T.J., Braat, D.D.M., et al. (2009). Assessment of competence and progressive independence in postgraduate clinical training. Medical Education, 43(12) pp. 1156-1165.
    [10.1111/j.1365-2923.2009.03509.x] [Scopus]
  • Dijksterhuis, M.G.K., Scheele, F., Schuwirth, L.W., Essed, G.G.M., Nijhuis, J.G. and Braat, D.D.M. (2009). Progress testing in postgraduate medical education. Medical Teacher, 31(10) pp. e464-e468.
    [Scopus] [Web Link]
  • Van Mook, W., de Grave, W.S., Van Luijk, S.J., O'Sullivan, H., Wass, V., Schuwirth, L.W., et al. (2009). Training and learning professionalism in the medical school curriculum: Current considerations. European Journal of Internal Medicine, 20(4) pp. e96-e100.
    [10.1016/j.ejim.2008.12.006] [Scopus]
  • Wilde, J.D., Bion, J., Bullock, A., Bion, J.K., Clutton-Brock, T., Flaatten, H., et al. (2009). The educational environment for training in intensive care medicine: structures, processes, outcomes and challenges in the European region. Intensive Care Medicine, 35(9) pp. 1575-1583.
    [10.1007/s00134-009-1514-4] [Scopus]
  • Van der Veken, J., Valcke, M., De Maeseneer, J., Schuwirth, L.W. and Derese, A. (2009). Impact on knowledge acquisition of the transition from a conventional to an integrated contextual medical curriculum. Medical Education, 43(7) pp. 704-713.
    [10.1111/j.1365-2923.2009.03397.x] [Scopus]
  • Van Mook, W.N., de Grave, W.S., Wass, V., O'Sullivan, H., Zwaveling, J.H., Schuwirth, L.W., et al. (2009). Professionalism: Evolution of the concept. European Journal of Internal Medicine, 20(4) pp. e81-e84.
    [10.1016/j.ejim.2008.10.005] [Scopus]
  • Van Mook, W.N., Van Luijk, S.J., de Grave, W., O'Sullivan, H., Wass, V., Schuwirth, L.W., et al. (2009). Teaching and learning professional behavior in practice. European Journal of Internal Medicine, 20(5) pp. e105-e111.
    [10.1016/j.ejim.2009.01.003] [Scopus]
  • Van Mook, W.N., Gorter, S.L., O'Sullivan, H., Wass, V., Schuwirth, L.W. and Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. (2009). Approaches to professional behaviour assessment: Tools in the professionalism toolbox. European Journal of Internal Medicine, 20(4) pp. e153-e157.
    [10.1016/j.ejim.2009.07.012] [Scopus]
  • Van Mook, W.N., Gorter, S.L., de Grave, W.S., Van Luijk, S.J., O'Sullivan, H., Wass, V., et al. (2009). Professionalism beyond medical school: An educational continuum? European Journal of Internal Medicine, 20(8) pp. e148-e148.
    [10.1016/j.ejim.2009.09.009] [Scopus]
  • Van Mook, W.N., Van Luijk, S.J., O'Sullivan, H., Wass, V., Schuwirth, L.W. and Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. (2009). General considerations regarding assessment of professional behaviour. European Journal of Internal Medicine, 20(4) pp. e90-e95.
    [10.1016/j.ejim.2008.11.011] [Scopus]
  • Van Mook, W.N., Van Luijk, S.J., O'Sullivan, H., Wass, V., Zwaveling, J.H., Schuwirth, L.W., et al. (2009). The concepts of professionalism and professional behaviour: Conflicts in both definition and learning outcomes. European Journal of Internal Medicine, 20(4) pp. e85-e89.
    [10.1016/j.ejim.2008.10.006] [Scopus]
  • Prescott-Clements, L., Van der Vleuten, C.P.M., Schuwirth, L.W., Hurst, Y. and Rennie, J.S. (2008). Evidence for validity within workplace assessment: the Longitudinal Evaluation of Performance (LEP). Medical Education, 42(5) pp. 488-495.
    [10.1111/j.1365-2923.2007.02965.x] [Scopus]
  • Muijtjens, A.M.M., Schuwirth, L.W., Cohen-Schotanus, J., Thoben, A.J.N.M. and Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. (2008). Benchmarking by cross-institutional comparison of student achievement in a progress test. Medical Education, 42(1) pp. 82-88.
    [10.1111/j.1365-2923.2007.02896.x] [Scopus]
  • Muijtjens, A.M.M., Schuwirth, L.W., Cohen-Schotanus, J. and Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. (2008). Differences in knowledge development exposed by multi-curricular progress test data. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 13(5) pp. 593-605.
    [10.1007/s10459-007-9066-2] [Scopus]
  • McKinley, R.K., Strand, J., Gray, T., Schuwirth, L.W., Alun-Jones, T. and Miller, H. (2008). Development of a tool to support holistic generic assessment of clinical procedure skills. Medical Education, 42(6) pp. 619-627.
    [10.1111/j.1365-2923.2008.03023.x] [Scopus]
  • Verheggen, M.M., Muijtjens, A.M.M., van Os, J. and Schuwirth, L.W. (2008). Is an Angoff Standard an Indication of Minimal Competence of Examinees or of Judges? Advances in Health Sciences Education, 13(2) pp. 203-211.
    [10.1007/s10459-006-9035-1] [Scopus]
  • Van Mook, W.N.K.A., de Grave, W.S., Huijssen-Huisman, E., De Witt-Luth, M., Dolmans, D.H.J.M., Muijtjens, A.M.M., et al. (2007). Factors inhibiting assessment of students' professional behaviour in the tutorial group during problem-based learning. Medical Education, 41(9) pp. 849-856.
    [10.1111/j.1365-2923.2007.02849.x] [Scopus]
  • Muijtjens, A.M.M., Schuwirth, L.W., Cohen-Schotanus, J. and Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. (2007). Origin bias of test items compromises the validity and fairness of curriculum comparisons. Medical Education, 41(12) pp. 1217-1223.
    [10.1111/j.1365-2923.2007.02934.x] [Scopus]
  • Govaerts, M.J.B., Van der Vleuten, C.P.M., Schuwirth, L.W. and Muijtjens, A.M.M. (2007). Broadening perspectives on clinical performance assessment: rethinking the nature of in-training assessment. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 12(2) pp. 239-260.
    [10.1007/s10459-006-9043-1] [Scopus]
  • Crossley, J., Russell, J., Jolly, B., Ricketts, C., Roberts, C., Schuwirth, L.W., et al. (2007). 'I'm pickin' up good regressions': the governance of generalisability analyses. Medical Education, 41(10) pp. 926-934.
    [10.1111/j.1365-2923.2007.02843.x] [Scopus]
  • Winslade, N.E., Tamblyn, R.M., Taylor, L.K., Schuwirth, L.W. and Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. (2007). Integrating Performance Assessment, Maintenance of Competence, and Continuing Professional Development of Community Pharmacists. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 71(1) pp. Art 15.
    [10.5688/aj710115] [Scopus] [Web Link]
  • McLeod, P.J., Steinert, Y., Meagher, T., Schuwirth, L.W., Tabatabai, D. and McLeod, A.H. (2006). The acquisition of tacit knowledge in medical education: learning by doing. Medical Education, 40(2) pp. 146-149.
    [10.1111/j.1365-2929.2005.02370.x] [Scopus]
  • Schuwirth, L.W. and Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. (2006). A plea for new psychometric models in educational assessment. Medical Education, 40(4) pp. 296-300.
    [10.1111/j.1365-2929.2006.02405.x] [Scopus]
  • Govaerts, M.J.B., Van der Vleuten, C.P.M., Schuwirth, L.W. and Muijtjens, A.M.M. (2005). The Use of Observational Diaries in In-Training Evaluation: Student Perceptions. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 10(3) pp. 171-188.
    [10.1007/s10459-005-0398-5] [Scopus]
  • Schuwirth, L.W., Gorter, S., van der Heijde, D.M., Rethans, J.J., Brauer, J., Houben, H., et al. (2005). The role of a computerised case-based testing procedure in practice performance assessment. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 10(2) pp. 145-155.
    [10.1007/s10459-004-2784-9] [Scopus]
  • Driessen, E., Van der Vleuten, C.P.M., Schuwirth, L.W., Van Tartwijk, J. and Vermunt, J. (2005). The use of qualitative research criteria for portfolio assessment as an alternative to reliability evaluation: a case study. Medical Education, 39(2) pp. 214-220.
    [10.1111/j.1365-2929.2004.02059.x] [Scopus]
  • Baars, M.J.H., Scherpbier, A.J.J.A., Schuwirth, L.W., Henneman, L., Beemer, F.A., Cobben, J.M.G., et al. (2005). Deficient knowledge of genetics relevant for daily practice among medical students nearing graduation. GENETICS IN MEDICINE, 7(5) pp. 295-301.
    [10.1097/01.GIM.0000162877.87333.9A] [Scopus]
  • Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. and Schuwirth, L.W. (2005). Assessing professional competence: from methods to programmes. Medical Education, 39(3) pp. 309-317.
    [10.1111/j.1365-2929.2005.02094.x] [Scopus]
  • Hoos, M.B., Westerterp, K.R., Kuipers, H., Schuwirth, L.W. and Gerver, W.J.M. (2004). Physical activity as measured by accelerometry in children receiving growth hormone. Acta Paediatrica, 93(10) pp. 1307-1311.
    [10.1111/j.1651-2227.2004.tb02928.x] [Scopus]
  • McLeod, P.J., Meagher, T., Steinert, Y., Schuwirth, L.W. and McLeod, A.H. (2004). Clinical teachers' tacit knowledge of basic pedagogic principles. Medical Teacher, 26(1) pp. 23-27.
    [10.1080/01421590310001643154] [Scopus]
  • Schuwirth, L.W. and Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. (2004). Changing education, changing assessment, changing research? Medical Education, 38(8) pp. 805-812.
    [10.1111/j.1365-2929.2004.01851.x] [Scopus]
  • Schuwirth, L.W. and Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. (2004). Different written assessment methods: what can be said about their strengths and weaknesses? Medical Education, 38(9) pp. 974-979.
    [10.1111/j.1365-2929.2004.01916.x] [Scopus]
  • Van der Vleuten, C.P.M., Dolmans, D.H.J.M., de Grave, W.S., Van Luijk, S.J., Muijtjens, A.M.M., Scherpbier, A.J.J.A., et al. (2004). Education research at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Maastricht: Fostering the interrelationship between professional and education practice. Academic Medicine, 79(10) pp. 990-996.
    [10.1097/00001888-200410000-00021] [Scopus]
  • Van der Vleuten, C.P.M., Schuwirth, L.W., Muijtjens, A.M.M., Thoben, A.J.N.M., Cohen-Schotanus, J. and van Boven, C.P.A. (2004). Cross institutional collaboration in assessment: A case on progress testing. Medical Teacher, 26(8) pp. 719-725.
    [10.1080/01421590400016464] [Scopus]
  • Schuwirth, L.W. and Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. (2003). The use of clinical simulations in assessment. Medical Education, 37(s1) pp. 65-71.
    [10.1046/j.1365-2923.37.s1.8.x] [Scopus]
  • Maiburg, B.H.J., Rethans, J.J.E., Schuwirth, L.W., Mathus-Vliegen, L.M.H. and van Ree, J.W. (2003). Controlled trial of effect of computer-based nutrition course on knowledge and practice of general practitioner trainees. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 77(4 Suppl) pp. 1019S-1024S.
    [Scopus] [Web Link]
  • Schuwirth, L.W. and Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. (2003). Written assessment. British Medical Journal, 326(7390) pp. 643-645.
    [10.1136/bmj.326.7390.643] [Scopus]
  • Govaerts, M.J.B., Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. and Schuwirth, L.W. (2002). Optimising the Reproducibility of a Performance-Based Assessment Test in Midwifery Education. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 7(2) pp. 133-145.
    [10.1023/A:1015720302925] [Scopus]
  • Hays, R.B., Davies, H.A., Beard, J.D., Caldon, L.J.M., Farmer, E.A., Finucane, P.M., et al. (2002). Selecting performance assessment methods for experienced physicians. Medical Education, 36(10) pp. 910-917.
    [10.1046/j.1365-2923.2002.01307.x] [Scopus]
  • Lew, S.R., Page, G.G., Schuwirth, L.W., Barón-Maldonado, M., Lescop, J.M.J., Paget, N.S., et al. (2002). Procedures for establishing defensible programmes for assessing practice performance. Medical Education, 36(10) pp. 936-941.
    [10.1046/j.1365-2923.2002.01319.x] [Scopus]
  • Schuwirth, L.W., Southgate, L., Page, G.G., Paget, N.S., Lescop, J.M.J., Lew, S.R., et al. (2002). When enough is enough: a conceptual basis for fair and defensible practice performance assessment. Medical Education, 36(10) pp. 925-930.
    [10.1046/j.1365-2923.2002.01313.x] [Scopus]
  • Govaerts, M.J.B., Schuwirth, L.W., Pin, A., Clement, M.E.J. and Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. (2001). Objective assessment is needed to ensure competence. British Journal of Midwifery, 9(3) pp. 156-161.
    [10.12968/bjom.2001.9.3.8002]
  • Schuwirth, L.W., Verheggen, M.M., Van der Vleuten, C.P.M., Boshuizen, H.P.A. and Dinant, G.J. (2001). Do short cases elicit different thinking processes than factual knowledge questions do? Medical Education, 35(4) pp. 348-356.
    [10.1046/j.1365-2923.2001.00771.x] [Scopus]
  • Van der Vleuten, C.P.M., Scherpbier, A.J.J.A., Dolmans, D.H.J.M., Schuwirth, L.W., Verwijnen, G.M. and Wolfhagen, I.H.A.P. (2000). Clerkship assessment assessed. Medical Teacher, 22(6) pp. 592-600.
    [10.1080/01421590050175587]
  • Schuwirth, L.W., Blackmore, D.E., Mom, E.M.A., Van Den Wildenberg, F.A.J.M., Stoffers, H.E.J.H. and Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. (1999). How to write short cases for assessing problem-solving skills. Medical Teacher, 21(2) pp. 144-150.
    [10.1080/01421599979761] [Scopus]
  • Verhoeven, B.H., Verwijnen, G.M., Scherpbier, A.J.J.A., Schuwirth, L.W. and Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. (1999). Quality assurance in test construction: The approach of a multidisciplinary central test committee. Education For Health: Change in Learning and Practice, 12(1) pp. 49-60.
    [Scopus] [Web Link]
  • Schuwirth, L.W., Verhoeven, B.H., Scherpbier, A.J.J.A., Mom, E.M.A., Cohen-Schotanus, J., Van Rossum, H.J.M., et al. (1999). An Inter- and Intra-University Comparison With Short Case-Based Testing. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 4(3) pp. 233-244.
    [10.1023/A:1009890218207] [Scopus]
  • Albano, M.G., Cavallo, F., Hoogenboom, R.J.I., Magni, F., Majoor, G.D., Manenti, F., et al. (1996). An international comparison of knowledge levels of medical students: the Maastricht Progress Test. Medical Education, 30(4) pp. 239-245.
    [Scopus] [Web Link]
  • Schuwirth, L.W., Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. and Donkers, H.(.H.L.M. (1996). A closer look at cueing effects in multiple-choice questions. Medical Education, 30(1) pp. 44-49.
    [Scopus] [PubMed]
  • Schuwirth, L.W., Van der Vleuten, C.P.M., Stoffers, H.E.J.H. and Peperkamp, A.G.W. (1996). Computerized long-menu questions as an alternative to open-ended questions in computerized assessment. Medical Education, 30(1) pp. 50-55.
    [Scopus] [PubMed]
  • Schuwirth, L.W., Van der Vleuten, C.P.M., De Kock, C.A., Peperkamp, A.G.W. and Donkers, H.(.H.L.M. (1996). Computerized case-based testing: A modern method to assess clinical decision making. Medical Teacher, 18(4) pp. 294-299.
    [Scopus] [Web Link]
  • Blaauw, A.A.M., Schuwirth, L.W., Van der Vleuten, C.P.M., Smits, F. and Van Der Linden, S. (1995). Assessing clinical competence: Recognition of case descriptions of rheumatic diseases by general practitioners. British Journal of Rheumatology, 3(4) pp. 375-379.
    [PubMed]
  • Kikukawa, M., Staimeijer, R.E., Okubo, T., Taketomi, K., Emura, S., Miyata, Y., et al. (2017). Development of culture-sensitive clinical teacher evaluation sheet in the Japanese context. Medical Teacher, 39(8) pp. 844-850.
    [10.1080/0142159X.2017.1324138] [Scopus]
  • Prakash, S., Bihari, S., Need, P., Sprick, C.D. and Schuwirth, L.W. (2017). Immersive high fidelity simulation of critically ill patients to study cognitive errors: a pilot study. BMC Medical Education, 17(1) pp. Art: 36.
    [10.1186/s12909-017-0871-x] [Scopus]
  • Harrison, C., Konings, K.D., Dannefer, E.F., Schuwirth, L.W., Wass, V. and van der Vleuten, C. (2016). Factors influencing students' receptivity to formative feedback emerging from different assessment cultures. Perspectives on Medical Education, 5(5) pp. 276-284.
    [10.1007/s40037-016-0297-x]
  • Chehade, M., Gill, T.K., Kopansky-Giles, D., Schuwirth, L.W., Karnon, J., McLeish, P., et al. (2016). Building multidisciplinary health workforce capacity to support the implementation of integrated, people-centred Models of Care for musculoskeletal health. Best Practice and Research in Clinical Rheumatology, 30(3) pp. 559-584.
    [10.1016/j.berh.2016.09.005]
  • Oude Egbrink, M.G.A. and Schuwirth, L.W. (2016). Narrative information obtained during student selection predicts problematic study behaviour. Medical Teacher, 38(8) pp. 844-849.
    [10.3109/0142159X.2015.1132410] [Scopus]
  • Durning, S., Rencic, J. and Schuwirth, L.W. (2015). Assessing Clinical Reasoning. In Pangaro Louis N. & William C. McGaghie, ed. Handbook on Medical Student Evaluation and Assessment. New York, United States of America: Alliance for Clinical Education, pp. 127-144.
  • Schuwirth, L. (2014). Toetsen met korte casussen [Assessment with short cases] In Henk van Berkel, Anneke Bax, Desirée Joosten-ten Brinke, ed. Toetsen in het hoger onderwijs [Assessment in higher education] Chapter 13 ed. The Netherlands: Bohn Stafleu van Loghum B.V., pp. 143-155.
    [10.1007/978-90-368-0239-0] [10.1007/978-90-368-0239-0_13]
  • Schuwirth, L.W., Colliver, J., Gruppen, L., Kreiter, C., Mennin, S., Onishi, H., et al. (2012). Research on Assessment Practices. In William McGaghie, ed. International Best Practices for Evaluation in the Health Professions. Abingdon UK: Radcliffe Publishing, Ltd, pp. Chapter-16.
  • Schuwirth, L.W. and Van der Vleuten, C.P.M. (2012). Assessing Competence: Extending the Approaches to Reliability. In Brian D. Hodges, Lorelei Lingard, M. Brownell Anderson, ed. The Question of Competence: reconsidering medical education in the twenty-first century (The Culture and Politics of Health Care Work) USA: Cornell University, pp. 113-130.
  • Schuwirth, L.W.T. and Van der Vleuten, C. (2011). Conceptualising surgical education assessment. In Fry, H. and Kneebone, R., ed. Surgical Education, theorising an emerging domain. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer, pp. 75-90.
    [10.1007/978-94-007-1682-7_5]

Professional and community engagement

Translation of theory and evidence into educational approaches that work. Developing assessment programmes for educational organisations, specifically programmatic assessment for learning programmes.

Expertise for media contact

Subject Titles

  • Health/Medical education
  • Medical education

Interests

  • assessment of medical competence and performance
  • national assessment
  • progress testing
  • research in medical education

Contact

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Phone: +61 8 72218807
Email:
Location: Flinders Medical Centre (5E:221.2)
Postal address: GPO Box 2100, Adelaide 5001, South Australia

Further information

Deputy-Editor Medical Education
Editor Advances in Health Sciences Education
Editorial board member Focus on Health Professional Education
Editorial board member Perspectives on Medical Education
Former education advisor to the British Medical Journal

Editorial board member Korean Journal of Medical Education

Editorial board member The Asia- Pacific Scholar

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