*(Professor Reg Cahill)*

Papers published in Progress in Physics are available on-line at http://www.ptep-online.com/index_files/issues.html

## 2011

Experimental Investigation of the Fresnel Drag Effect in RF Coaxial Cables

Published: **Progress in Physics**, 1, 43-48, 2011

Abstract: An experiment that confirms the Fresnel drag formalism in RF coaxial cables is reported. The Fresnel `drag' in bulk dielectrics and in optical fibers has previously been well established. An explanation for this formalism is given, and it is shown that there is no actual drag phenomenon, rather that the Fresnel drag effect is merely the consequence of a simplified description of EM scattering within a dielectric in motion wrt the dynamical 3-space. The Fresnel drag effect plays a critical role in the design of various light-speed anisotropy detectors.

Dynamical 3-Space Gravity Theory: Effects on Polytropic Solar Models

Published: **Progress in Physics**, 1, 49-54, 2011

Abstract: Numerous experiments and observations have confirmed the existence of a dynamical 3-space, detectable directly by light-speed anisotropy experiments, and indirectly by means of novel gravitational effects, such as bore hole g anomalies, predictable black hole masses, flat spiral-galaxy rotation curves, and the expansion of the universe, all without dark matter and dark energy. The dynamics for this 3-space follows from a unique generalisation of Newtonian gravity, once that is cast into a velocity formalism. This new theory of gravity is applied to the sun to compute new density, pressure and temperature profiles, using polytrope modelling of the equation of state for the matter. These results should be applied to a re-analysis of solar neutrino production, and to stellar evolution in general.

## 2010

Dynamical 3-Space Predicts Hotter Early Universe: Resolves CMB-BBN Li7 and He4 Abundance Anomalies

Published: **Progress in Physics**, 1, 67-71, 2010.

Abstract: The observed abundances of Li7 and He4 are significantly inconsistent with the predictions from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) when using the LCDM cosmological model together with the value for Omega_Bh^2 =0.0224+/-0.0009 from WMAP CMB fluctuations, with the value from BBN required to fit observed abundances being 0.009

Lunar Laser-Ranging Detection of Light-Speed Anisotropy and Gravitational Waves

Published: **Progress in Physics**, 2, 31-35, 2010.

Abstract: The Apache Point Lunar Laser-ranging Operation (APOLLO), in NM, can detect photon bounces from retroreflectors on the moon surface to 0.1ns timing resolution. This facility enables not only the detection of light speed anisotropy, which defines a local preferred frame of reference—only in that frame is the speed of light isotropic, but also luctuations/turbulence (gravitational waves) in the flow of the dynamical 3-space relative to local systems/observers. So the APOLLO facility can act as an effective “gravitational

wave” detector. A recently published small data set from November 5, 2007, is analysed to characterise both the average anisotropy velocity and the wave/turbulence

effects. The results are consistent with some 13 previous detections, with the last and most accurate being from the spacecraft earth-flyby Doppler-shift NASA data.

Quantum-Foam, Gravity and Gravitational Waves

Published: **Relativity, Gravitation, Cosmology, - New Developments**, Nova Science, Ed. V. Dvoeglazov, 1-55, 2010.

Abstract: It is shown that both the Newtonian and General Relativity theories for gravity may be re-formulated as in-flow dynamics in which a substratum is effectively absorbed by matter, with the gravitational force determined by inhomogeneities of that flow. Analysis herein of the 1925-26 Dayton Miller interferometer data reveals such a gravitational in-flow of space past the Earth into the Sun. This data and that from the 1991 Roland DeWitte coaxial cable experiment also suggests that the in-flow is turbulent, which amounts to the observation of a gravitational wave phenomena. A generalisation of the in-flow formalisms is proposed which passes all the tests that General Relativity passed, but as well the new theory suggests that the so-called spiral galaxy rotation-velocity anomaly may be explained without the need of `dark matter'. As well analysis of data from the Michelson and Morley, Miller, Illingworth, Jaseja et al, Torr and Kolen, and DeWitte experiments reveal motion relative to the substratum. Special relativity effects are caused by motion relative to the substratum. This implies that a new ontology underlies the spacetime formalism.

The Dynamical Velocity Superposition Effect in the Quantum-Foam In-Flow Theory of Gravity

Published: **Relativity, Gravitation, Cosmology, - New Developments**, Nova Science, Ed. V. Dvoeglazov, 113-131, 2010.

Abstract: The new `quantum-foam in-flow' theory of gravity has explained numerous so-called gravitational anomalies, particularly the `dark matter' effect which is now seen to be a dynamical effect of space itself, and whose strength is determined by the fine structure constant, and not by Newton's gravitational constant G. Here we show an experimentally significant approximate dynamical effect, namely a vector superposition effect which arises under certain dynamical conditions when we have absolute motion and gravitational in-flows: the velocities for these processes are shown to be approximately vectorially additive under these conditions. This effect plays a key role in interpreting the data from the numerous experiments that detected the absolute linear motion of the earth. The violations of this superposition effect lead to observable effects, such as the generation of turbulence. The flow theory also leads to vorticity effects that the Gravity Probe B gyroscope experiment will soon begin observing. As previously reported General Relativity predicts a smaller vorticity effect (therein called the Lense-Thirring `frame-dragging' effect) than the new theory of gravity.

Novel Gravity Probe B Gravitational Wave Detection

To be published: **Relativity, Gravitation, Cosmology, - New Developments**, Nova Science, Ed. V. Dvoeglazov, 133-151, 2010.

Abstract: The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) satellite experiment will measure the precession of on-board gyroscopes to extraordinary accuracy. Such precessions are predicted by General Relativity (GR), and one component of this precession is the `frame-dragging' or Lense-Thirring effect, which is caused by the rotation of the earth, and the other is the geodetic effect. A new theory of gravity predicts, however, a second and much larger `frame-dragging' or vorticity induced spin precession. This spin precession component will also display the effects of novel gravitational waves which are predicted by the new theory of gravity, and which have already been seen in several experiments. The magnitude and signature of these gravitational wave induced spin precession effects is given for comparison with the GP-B experimental data.

## 2009

Dynamical 3-Space: A Review

Published: **Ether Space-time and Cosmology: New Insights into a Key Physical Medium**, M. Duffy and J. Levy, eds., Apeiron, 135-200, 2009.

Abstract: For some 100 years physics has modelled space and time via the spacetime concept, with space being merely an observer dependent perspective effect of that spacetime - space itself had no observer independent existence - it had no ontological status, and it certainly had no dynamical description. In recent years this has all changed. In 2002 it was discovered that a dynamical 3-space had been detected many times, including the Michelson-Morley 1887 light-speed anisotropy experiment. Here we review the dynamics of this 3-space, tracing its evolution from that of an emergent phenomena in the information-theoretic Process Physics to the phenomenological description in terms of a velocity field describing the relative internal motion of the structured 3-space. The new physics of the dynamical 3-space is extensively tested against experimental and astronomical observations, including the necessary generalisation of the Maxwell, Schrodinger and Dirac equations, leading to a derivation and explanation of gravity as a refraction effect of quantum matter waves. The flat and curved spacetime formalisms are derived from the new physics, so explaining their apparent many successes.

Combining NASA/JPL One-Way Optical-Fiber Light-Speed Data with Spacecraft Earth-Flyby Doppler-Shift Data to Characterise 3-Space Flow

Published: **Progress in Physics**, 4, 50-64, 2009.

Abstract: We combine data from two high precision NASA/JPL experiments: (i) the one-way speed of light experiment using optical fibers: Krisher T.P., Maleki L., Lutes G.F., Primas L.E., Logan R.T., Anderson J.D. and Will C.M., Phys. Rev. D, vol 42, 731-734, 1990, and (ii) the spacecraft earth-flyby doppler shift data: Anderson J.D., Campbell J.K., Ekelund J.E., Ellis J. and Jordan J.F., Phys. Rev. Lett., vol 100, 091102, 2008, to give the solar-system galactic 3-space average speed of 486km/s in the direction RA=4.29hr, Dec=-75.0deg. Turbulence effects (gravitational waves) are also evident. Data also reveals the 30km/s orbital speed of the earth and the sun inflow component at 1AU of 42km/s and also 615km/s near the sun, and for the first time, experimental measurement of the 3-space 11.2km/s inflow of the earth. The NASA/JPL data is in remarkable agreement with that determined in other light speed anisotropy experiments, such as Michelson-Morley (1887), Miller (1933), Torr and Kolen (1981), DeWitte (1991), Cahill (2006), Munera (2007), Cahill and Stokes (2008) and Cahill (2009).

Unravelling the Dark Matter - Dark Energy Paradigm

Published: **Apeiron**, 4, 323-375, 2009.

Abstract: The standard LCDM model of cosmology is usually understood to arise from demanding that the Friedmann-Lemaõtre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) metric satisfy the General Relativity dynamics for spacetime metrics. The FLRW data-based dominant parameter values, Omega_L = 0.73 and Omega_m = 0.27 for the dark energy and dark matter matter, respectively, are then determined by fitting the supernova red-shift data. However in the pressure-less flat-space case the LCDM model is most easily derived from Newtonian gravity, and which was based on the special case of planetary motion in the solar system. Not surprisingly when extended to galactic rotations and cosmology Newtonian dynamics is found to be wanting, and the fix-up involves introducing dark matter and dark energy, as shown herein. However a different theory of gravity leads to a different account of galactic rotations and cosmology, and does not require dark matter nor dark energy to fit the supernova data. It is shown that fitting the LCDM model to this new model, and so independently of the actual supernova data, requires the LCDM model parameters to be those given above. Hence we conclude that dark energy and dark matter are no more than mathematical artifacts to fix-up limitations of Newtonian gravity. Various other data are also briefly reviewed to illustrate other successful tests of this new theory of gravity.

## 2008

Unravelling Lorentz Covariance and the Spacetime Formalism

Published: ** Progress in Physics,** 4, 19-24, 2008.

Abstract: We report the discovery of an exact mapping from Galilean time and space coordinates to Minkowski spacetime coordinates, showing that Lorentz covariance and the spacetime construct are consistent with the existence of a dynamical 3-space, and ``absolute motion". We illustrate this mapping first with the standard theory of sound, as vibrations of a medium, which itself may be undergoing fluid motion, and which is covariant under Galilean coordinate transformations. By introducing a different non-physical class of space and time coordinates it may be cast into a form that is covariant under ``Lorentz transformations" wherein the speed of sound is now the ``invariant speed". If this latter formalism were taken as fundamental and complete we would be lead to the introduction of a pseudo-Riemannian ``spacetime" description of sound, with a metric characterised by an ``invariant speed of sound". This analysis is an allegory for the development of 20th century physics, but where the Lorentz covariant Maxwell equations were constructed first, and the Galilean form was later constructed by Hertz, but ignored. It is shown that the Lorentz covariance of the Maxwell-Hertz equations only occurs if we use non-physical Minkowski space and time coordinates. The use of this class of coordinates has confounded 20th century physics, and resulted in the existence of a ``flowing" dynamical 3-space being overlooked. The discovery of the dynamics of this 3-space has lead to the derivation of an extended gravity theory as a quantum effect, and confirmed by numerous experiments and observations.

Resolving Spacecraft Earth-Flyby Anomalies with Measured Light Speed Anisotropy

Published: ** Progress in Physics,** 3, 9-15, 2008.

Abstract: Doppler shift observations of spacecraft, such as Galileo, NEAR, Cassini, Rosetta and MESSENGER in earth flybys, have all revealed unexplained speed `anomalies' - that the doppler-shift determined speeds are inconsistent with expected speeds. Here it is shown that these speed anomalies are not real and are actually the result of using an incorrect relationship between the observed doppler shift and the speed of the spacecraft - a relationship based on the assumption that the speed of light is isotropic in all frames, viz invariant. Taking account of the repeatedly measured light-speed anisotropy the anomalies are resolved ab initio. The Pioneer 10/11 anomalies are discussed, but not resolved. The spacecraft observations demonstrate again that the speed of light is not invariant, and is isotropic only with respect to a dynamical 3-space. The existing doppler shift data also offers a resource to characterise a new form of gravitational waves, the dynamical 3-space turbulence, that has also been detected by other techniques. The Einstein spacetime formalism uses a special definition of space and time coordinates that mandates light speed invariance for all observers, but which is easily misunderstood and misapplied.

Correlated Detection of sub-mHz Gravitational Waves by Two Optical-Fiber Interferometers

Published: ** Progress in Physics,** 2, 103-110, 2008.

Abstract: Results from two optical-fiber gravitational-wave interferometric detectors are reported. The detector design is very small, cheap and simple to build and operate. Using two detectors has permitted various tests of the design principles as well as demonstrating the first simultaneous detection of correlated gravitational waves from detectors spatially separated by 1.1km. The frequency spectrum of the detected gravitational waves is sub-mHz with a strain spectral index a=-1.4 /- 0.1. As well as characterising the wave effects the detectors also show, from data collected over some 80 days in the latter part of 2007, the dominant earth rotation effect and the earth orbit effect. The detectors operate by exploiting light speed anisotropy in optical-fibers. The data confirms previous observations of light speed anisotropy, earth rotation and orbit effects, and gravitational waves.

## 2007

A Quantum Cosmology: No Dark Matter, Dark Energy nor Accelerating Universe

Abstract: We show that modelling the universe as a pre-geometric system with emergent quantum modes, and then constructing the classical limit, we obtain a new account of space and gravity that goes beyond Newtonian gravity even in the non-relativistic limit. This account does not require dark matter to explain the spiral galaxy rotation curves, and explains as well the observed systematics of black hole masses in spherical star systems, the bore hole $g$ anomalies, gravitational lensing and so on. As well the dynamics has a Hubble expanding universe solution that gives an excellent parameter-free account of the supernovae and gamma-ray-burst red-shift data, without dark energy or dark matter. The Friedmann-Lema\^{i}tre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) metric is derived from this dynamics, but is shown not satisfy the General Relativity based Friedmann equations. It is noted that General Relativity dynamics only permits an expanding flat 3-space solution if the energy density in the pressure-less dust approximation is non-zero. As a consequence dark energy and dark matter are required in this cosmological model, and as well the prediction of a future exponential accelerating Hubble expansion. The FLRW $\Lambda$CDM model data-based parameter values, $\Omega_\Lambda=0.73$, $\Omega_{DM}=0.27$, are derived within the quantum cosmology model, but are shown to be merely artifacts of using the Friedmann equations in fitting the red-shift data.

Optical-Fiber Gravitational Wave Detector: Dynamical 3-Space Turbulence Detected

Published: ** Progress in Physics,** 4, 63-68, 2007.

Abstract: Preliminary results from an optical-fiber gravitational wave interferometric detector are reported. The detector is very small, cheap and simple to build and operate. It is assembled from readily available opto-electronic components. A parts list is given. The detector can operate in two modes: one in which only instrument noise is detected, and data from a 24 hour period is reported for this mode, and in a 2nd mode in which the gravitational waves are detected as well, and data from a 24 hour period is analysed. Comparison shows that the instrument has a high S/N ratio. The frequency spectrum of the gravitational waves shows a pink noise spectrum, from 0 to 0.1Hz.

Dynamical 3-Space: Alternative Explanation of the `Dark Matter Ring'

Published: ** Progress in Physics,** 4, 13-17, 2007.

Abstract: NASA has claimed the discovery of a `Ring of Dark Matter' in the galaxy cluster CL 0024 17, see Jee M.J. et al. arXiv:0705.2171, based upon gravitational lensing data. Here we show that the lensing can be given an alternative explanation that does not involve `dark matter'. This explanation comes from the new dynamics of 3-space. This dynamics involves two constant G and alpha - the fine structure constant. This dynamics has explained the bore hole anomaly, spiral galaxy flat rotation speeds, the masses of black holes in spherical galaxies, gravitational light bending and lensing, all without invoking `dark matter', and also the supernova redshift data without the need for `dark energy'.

Dynamical 3-Space: Supernovae and the Hubble Expansion - Older Universe and End of Dark Energy

Published: ** Progress in Physics,** 4, 9-12, 2007.

Abstract: We apply the new dynamics of 3-space to cosmology by deriving a Hubble expansion solution. This dynamics involves two constants; G and alpha - the fine structure constant. This solution gives an excellent parameter-free fit to the recent supernova and gamma-ray burst data without the need for `dark energy' or `dark matter'. The data and theory together imply an older age for the universe of some 14.7Gyrs. Various problems such as fine tuning, the event horizon problem etc are now resolved. A brief review discusses the origin of the 3-space dynamics and how that dynamics explained the bore hole anomaly, spiral galaxy flat rotation speeds, the masses of black holes in spherical galaxies, gravitational light bending and lensing, all without invoking `dark matter' or `dark energy'. These developments imply that a new understanding of the universe is now available.

Understanding the Retardation of the Returned Astronaut's Clock and GPS Clocks Using the Physical Behaviour of Moving Light Clocks

Published: ** Apeiron,** 14, 481-511, 2007.

Abstract: The prediction of retardation of an astronautÕs clock during a round trip, compared to the clock of the stay-at-home, introduced by Einstein in his 1905 paper has been the most contentious issue for relativity. This resulted in a raging controversy in journals in the mid to late 1950s. There was no discussion about the physical nature of clocks. Some current writers still claim that it is necessary to use general relativity. We will show that this is not correct. Special relativity makes correct predictions in accord with experimental data. Here we examine this question using the physical behaviour of moving light clocks and gain insight into the returning astronaut experiment and a deeper understanding of the nature of space and time.