Clarify good performance

Help develop self-assessment (reflection)

Deliver high quality information

Encourage teacher and peer dialogue

Encourage motivational belief and self-esteem

Provide opportunities to close the gap

Provide information to teachers to improve teaching

provide exemplars of good performance

engage students in peer marking against defined criteria and standards

 pay careful attention to the content and language of comments (see making written  comments into usable feedback)

review comments in class where students are asked to discuss comments with peers

provide grades only after students have responded to comments

encourage students to submit drafts for comment & to re-submit assessment pieces after using comments for improvement

ask students to identify the types of feedback they would like on an assessment task before handing the work in

provide clear definitions of criteria and standards of performance (via rubrics)

ask students to identify the types of feedback they would like on an assessment task before handing the work in

provide timely comments, so that the students have the opportunity to use them (e.g. comments on drafts)

ask students to identify examples of comments they found useful and explain how they helped

allocate time for students to re-work selected assessment tasks

use two stage assignments, where comments on stage 1 help improve stage 2

use one-minute papers in class & discuss the results in lectures or tutorials or on-line discussion

in class discussion of and reflection on criteria and standards in class before starting an assignment

require students to identify the strengths and weaknesses of a piece of work against the criteria and standards & to pass in their evaluation with the work

providing on-line tests with built-in feedback that students can access anytime

have students give each other descriptive feedback before submission of an assessment task

use automated testing with feedback for ‘low stakes' formative assessment

model/ demonstrate possible strategies for approaching an assessment task (e.g. structuring an essay)

have students identify a ‘question worth asking', based on prior study, that could be explored at the start of a subsequent learning session.

involve students in peer marking against defined criteria and standards

students build a portfolio of selected (and annotated) work

 

involve students in group projects, where they discuss criteria and standards before starting the project

encourage students to submit drafts for comment & to re-submit assessment pieces after using comments for improvement

group discussion amongst students to identify action points in response to feedback

 

negotiate criteria and standards with students

encouraging students to plan achievement milestones before commencing a task & to reflect on progress against their own milestones

 

use one-minute papers in class & discuss the results in lectures or tutorials or on-line discussion

 

 

 

(extracted from Nicol and Macfarlane, 2006, pp.207-214)