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Our research

Our mission is to foster and conduct translational research. This involves ongoing dialogue between educational theory and practice. The translational research process involves:

Research typeAims

Fundamental research

To understand the educational issue or problem at its most basic level

Design-based research

To translate theoretical findings to small-scale implementations to identify the optimal practical translation of the educational innovation

Justification research

To examine the effect of the educational innovation

 To read more about these types of research, click here.


Research theory-practice flowchart


Our research is organised into two streams:


Programmatic assessment for learning

Integrating admissions, assessment, evaluation and education into one system to maximise students’ learning and developing expertise as health professionals

Longitudinal integrated learning environments

Redesigning workplace learning contexts to better foster students’ clinical expertise development and professional identity formation


Lim, D., Schoo, A., Lawn, S., Litt, J.(2019) Embedding and sustaining motivational interviewing in clinical environments: a concurrent iterative mixed methods study . BMC Medical Education 19:164

Bhoopatkar, H., Wearn, A., Vnuk, Anna.(2019) Audit and exploration of graduating medical students' opportunities to perform digital rectal examinations as part of their learningANZ Journal of Surgery. 89(5):617-618.

Fealy, S., Jones, D., Hutton, A., Graham, K., McNeill, Liz., Sweet, Linda P., Hazelton, M. (2019). The integration of immersive virtual reality in tertiary nursing and midwifery education: A scoping review. Nurse Education Today. 79:14-19

Matsuyama, Y., Nakaya, M., Okazaki, H., Lebowitz, A.J.,  Leppink, J., Van Der Vleuten, Cees P.M. (2019). Does changing from a teacher-centered to a learner-centered context promote self-regulated learning: A qualitative study in a Japanese undergraduate setting. BMC Medical Education 19:152

Smirnova, A., Sebok-Syer, S.S., Chahine, S., Kalet, A.L., Tamblyn, R., Lombarts, K.M.J.M.H., Van der Vleuten, Cees P.M., Schumacher, D.J. (2019). Defining and Adopting Clinical Performance Measures in Graduate Medical Education: Where Are We Now and Where Are We Going? Academic Medicine. 94(5):671–677
Smirnova, A., Arah, O.A., Stalmeijer, R.E., Lombarts, K.M.J.M.H., Van Der Vleuten, Cees P.M. (2019). The Association between Residency Learning Climate and Inpatient Care Experience in Clinical Teaching Departments in the Netherlands. Academic Medicine. 94(3):419–426
Thomas, A., D. Gruppen, L., Van der Vleuten, Cees P.M., Chilingaryan, G., Amari, F., Steinert, Y. (2019). Use of evidence in health professions education: Attitudes, practices, barriers and supports. Medical Teacher.
Artino, A.R., Cervero, R.M., DeZee, K.J., Holmboe, E., Durning, S.J. (2018).  Graduate Programs in Health Professions Education: Preparing Academic Leaders for Future Challenges. Journal of graduate medical education, 10(2), pp. 119-122Attrill, S., Brebner, C., Marsh, C. (in press). Learning from students: Facilitators' learning in interprofessional placements. Journal of Interprofessional Care, pp. 1-10.
Bearman, M., Greenhill, J. & Nestel, D. (in press). The power of simulation: A large-scale narrative analysis of learners' experiencesMedical Education.
Bentley, M., Dummond, N., Isaac, V., Hodge, H., Walters, L. (2019). Doctors’ rural practice self-efficacy is associated with current and intended small rural locations of practice. Australian Journal of Rural Health.
Boulet, J.R., Durning, S.J. (in press). What we measure ... and what we should measure in medical education. Medical Education.
Chew, K.S., van Merrienboer, J.J.G. & Durning, S.J. (2019). Perception of the usability and implementation of a metacognitive mnemonic to check cognitive errors in clinical settingBMC Medical Education, 19(1), art. no. 18.
Cleland, J. & Durning, S.J. (in press). Education and service: How theories can help in understanding tensionsMedical Education.
Damarell, R.A., May, N., Hammond, S., Sladek, R.M. & Tieman, J.J. (in press). Topic search filters: A systematic scoping reviewHealth Information & Libraries Journal.
Dietrich, C.F., Hoffmann, B., Abramowicz, J., Badea, R., Braden, B., Cantisani, V., Chammas, M.C., Cui, X.W., Dong, Y, Gilja, O.J., Hari, R., Nisebaum, H., Nicholls, D., Nolsoe, C.P., Nurnberg, D., Prosch, H., Radzina, M., Recker, F., Sachs, A., Saftoiu, A., Serra, A., Sweet, L.P., Vinayak, S., Westerway, S., Chou, Y.H. &
Blaivas, M. (in press). Medical student ultrasound education: A WFUMB position part, Part IUltrasound in Medicine and Biology.
Dong, T., Gilliland, W.R., Cruess, D., Hutchinson, J., Morres, L., Curtis, J., . . . Durning, S.J. (2018). A longitudinal study of commonly used admissions measures and disenrollment from medical school and graduate medical education probation or termination from training. Military Medicine, 183(11-12), e680-e684. doi:10.1093/milmed/usy069
Durning, S.J., Varpio, L., Artino, A.R., Bader, K.S., Meyer, H.S., & Hamwey, M.K. (2018). Interprofessional healthcare teams in the military: A scoping literature review. Military Medicine, 183(11-12), e448-e454. doi:10.1093/milmed/usy087
Govaerts, M.J.B., van der Vleuten, C.P.M. & Holmboe, E.S. (ePub ahead of print). Managing tensions in assessment: Moving beyond either-or thinkingMedical Education.
Malau-Aduli, B.S., Alele, F., Collares, C.F., Reeve, C., van der Vleuten, C., Holdsworth, M., Heggarty, P., Teague, P. (2019). Validity of the scan of postgraduate educational environment domains (SPEED) questionnaire in rural general practice training settingBMC Medical Education, 19, 25.
McBee, E., Ratcliffe, T., Schuwirth, L.W.T., O’Neill, D., Meyer, H., Madden, S.J., Durning, S.J. (2018). Context and clinical reasoning: Understanding the medical student perspective. Perspectives on Medical Education, 7(4), pp. 256-263.
McGirr, J., Seal, A., Barnard, A., Cheek, C., Garne, D., Greenhill, J., Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, S., Luscombe, G.M., May, J., Leod, J.M., O’Sullivan, B., Playford, D., Wright, J. (2019).  The Australian Rural Clinical School (RCS) program supports rural medical workforce: Evidence from a crosssectional study of 12 RCSs. Rural and Remote Health, 19(1), art. no. 4971
Mavis, B., Durning, S.J., & Uijtdehaage, S. (2018). Authorship order in medical education publications: In search of practical guidance for the community. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 1-10. doi:10.1080/10401334.2018.1533836
Munro, E., Morello, A., Oster, C., Redmond, C., Vnuk, A., Lennon, S., Lawn, S. (2018). E-learning for self-management support: Introducing blended learning for graduate students - a cohort study. BMC Medical Education, 18, art. no. 219.
Muller, A. & Daller, M. (2019). Predicting international students' clinical and academic grades using two language tests (IELTS and C-test): A correlational research studyNurse Education Today, 72, pp. 6-11.

Murray, N., Muller, A. (in press). Developing academic literacy through a decentralised model of English language provision. Journal of Further and Higher Education.

Prakash, S., Sladek, R.M., Schuwirth, L. (in press). Interventions to improve diagnostic decision making: A systematic review and meta-analysis on reflective strategies. Medical Teacher.

Prideaux, D., Ash, J., Broadley, S., Crotty, B., Hart, W., Searle, J., Watson, J., Wing, L. & Worley, P. (2019). Leasing a medical curriculum: What's it worth? Medical Teacher.

Pront, L., McNeill, L. (2019). Nursing students' perceptions of a clinical learning assessment activity: ‘Linking the puzzle pieces of theory to practice’. Nurse Education in Practice, 36, pp. 85-90.

Ramani, S., Könings, K.D., Ginsburg, S., van der Vleuten, C.P.M. (2019). Feedback Redefined: Principles and Practice. Journal of General Internal Medicine

Sladek, R.M., McAllister, S., Walsh, K.M. (2019). Translating Health Professional Education Research Evidence into Effective Continuous Professional Development. The Medical Journal of Australia, 210(3), pp. 113-114

Ramani, S., Konings, K.D., Mann, K.V., Pisarski, E.E. & van der Vleuten, C.P.M. (2018). About politeness, face, and feedback: Exploring resident and faculty perceptions of how institutional feedback culture influences feedback practicesAcademic Medicine, 93(9), pp. 1348-1358.

Schoo, A., Kumar, K. (2018). The clinical educator and complexity: A review. The Clinical Teacher, 15, pp. 1-7.

Schut, S., Driessen, E., van Tartwijk, J., van der Vleuten, C., Heeneman, S. (in press). Stakes in the eye of the beholder: An international study of learners' perceptions within programmatic assessment. Medical Education, 52, pp. 654-663.

Schuwirth, L., Durning, S. (2018). Educational research: Current trends, evidence base and unanswered questions. Medical Journal of Australia, 208(4), pp. 161-163.e1.

Smadi, O., Parker, S., Gillham, D. & Muller, A. (2019). The applicability of community of inquiry framework to online nursing education: A cross-sectional studyNurse Education in Practice, 34, pp. 17-24.

Smith, J.H., Sweet, L.P.  (2019). Becoming A Nurse Preceptor, The Challenges and Rewards Of Novice Registered Nurses In High Acuity Hospital Environments. Nurse Education in Practice, 36, pp. 101-107.

Sweet, L.P., Bass, J., Graham, K. (2019). The Continuity of Care Experience and Reflective Writing: Enhancing Post-Practicum Learning For Midwifery Students. Professional and Practice-Based Learning, 25, Pp. 141-162.

Torre, D., Schreiber-Gregory, D., Boulet, J.R., Cervero, R.M., Hemmer, P., Pangaro, L.N., Durning, S.J. (2019) Specialty Choices, Practice Characteristics, and Long-term Outcomes of Two Cohorts of USUHS Medical School Graduates Compared with National Data. Military Medicine, 184, pp. e65–e70,

Torre, D.M., Hernandez, C.A., Castiglioni, A., Durning, S.J., Daley, B.J., Hemmer, P.A., LaRochelle, J. (2019). The Clinical Reasoning Mapping Exercise (CResME): a new tool for exploring clinical reasoning. Perspectives on Medical Education, 8(1), pp. 47-51.

Uijtdehaage, S., Schuwirth, L.W.T. (2018)  Assuring the quality of programmatic assessment: Moving beyond psychometrics. Perspectives on Medical Education, 7(6), pp. 350-351.

Valentine, N., Wignes, J., Benson, J., Clota, S., Schuwirth, L.W.T., (2019). Entrustable professional activities for workplace assessment of general practice trainees. Medical Journal of Australia.

Valentine, N., Schuwirth, L.W.T. (2019). Identifying the narrative used by educators in articulating judgement of performance. Perspectives on Medical Education, 8(2), pp. 83-89.

Wilby, K.J., Govaerts, M.J.B., Dolmans, D.H.J.M., Austin, Z., van der Vleuten, C.P.M., (2019). Reliability of Narrative Assessment Data on Communication Skills in A Summative Osce. Patient Education and Counselling, 102. pp. 1164-1169